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The Dutch racist Blackface tradition/Goodbye to Black Pete/Danger of fascism

woensdag 19 december 2018
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THE DUTCH RACIST BLACKFACE TRADITION/GOODBYE TOZWARTE PIET [BLACK PETE]/DANGER OF FASCISM

SEE ALSO

https://www.astridessed.nl/the-dutch-racist-blackface-tradition-goodbye-to-black-pete-danger-of-fascism/

This is a longread about a racist caricature and the threat of fascismin the Netherlands

Warning:The American ''Father Christmas'' Santa Claus and the Dutch''Sinterklaas are two different Fairy Tale Figures, although Santa Clausis derived from the Medieval Dutch ''Sinterlklaas''So the Dutch Feast of ''Sinterklaaas'' [5 december]  is not Christmas Feast!
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Nicholas


INTRODUCTIONPART I/BLACK PETEPART II/THE FACE OF FASCISM

INTRODUCTION
Dear Readers,
How would you react, when you saw, in nowadays 21st century,  a steamboat, navigatingon sea, river or channel, throwing its anchour, and an old, solemn white man with abeard and a mitre, a Bishop, holding his Entrance [''Intocht''in Dutch] in the city or village with as his servant a black guy in an old fashionedMoorish costume, speaking with an odd accent, with a strangelooking Afro hairpiece, big fat red lips, strange golden [slave like] earrlngs, running around, screaming, kicking, oddly laughinhand for the rest looking very stupid?You guess already?It's the Dutch Sinterklaas [Dutch for Saint Nicholas] Feast and it isyearly enjoyed at 5 december.Several weeks before, there is the Entrance or Arrival [In Dutch:Intocht] of Sinterklaas, a National Sinterklaas Intocht [Entrance] andlocal Entrances.
I hope, that you'll be embarassed and indignant, recognizing a caricatureof black people?Then we are talking business.....
Because not only this ''Zwarte Piet'' [Dutch for Black Pete] [1]is an embarrasment, he is, of course, not really black, but a black painted figure, like the former American ''Blackface'' in movies.....[2]
I refer to the annual Dutch Sinterklaas Feast [Dutch for Saint Nicholas], at5 december.Several weeks before, there is the Entrance or Arrival [In Dutch:Intocht] of Sinterklaas, a National Sinterklaas Intocht [Entrance] andlocal Intochten [Entrances].

YOU GUESS ALREADY WHAT POINT I WANT TO MAKE:
Today I want to talk with you about ''Zwarte Piet'' a not so nice Fairy Tale Creature, who happens [and for my concern:''happened''] to be the black helper of ''Sinterklaas'' orSt Nicolaas [Saint Nicholas] [3], whocomes from Spain each year, giving the children presents andsweet candies, at least, when they are obedient......[4].When they are naughty, they get nothing......Traditionally, naughty children are being ''punished'' by ''Zwarte Piet''[from now  on for my English readers ''Black Pete], getting no presentsat all, but are being put in a sack and been brought to Spain. HAHAHA, that's the tradition, which could be nice, isn't it?
Were it not, that that whole ''Black Pete'' figure stems from a racist traditionfrom the 19th century, the century of slavery, racist supremacist theoriesand fanatical colonialism.
PART IBLACK PETE
BACKGROUND/ORIGINS OF THE RACIST BLACK PETE
''Blackface'' Black Pete [Zwarte Piet] at first appeared in 1850 in a book bythe Dutch teacher J. Schenkman, titled ''Sint Nikolaas en zijn Knecht'' ("Saint Nicholas and his Servant"), [5], but there are signs that Black Peteoperated earlier in the 19th century and was called ''Pietermanknecht''(Dutch for Pete my Servant] [6]Be as it may:Crucial to the story is, that Black Pete was depicted asblack, which meant in the 19th century racist times:Inferior.A servant of the white man [woman]

And that was the main problem with the Blackface tradition:Picturing black as inferior didn't originate out of nothing:It stemmed from the beginning of the transatlantic slave trade andthe 17th, 18th, 19th slavery in the America'sRacism developed and reached its absolute lowest pointin the 19th century, when slavery, fanatical colonialismthe great West European colonial Empires originated from the 19th century]and race supremacy theories from ''white over black''developed.
Against this background black meant''inferior ''race'', a servant, ridiculous, stupid and also aggressive,because ''Black Pete'' was putting naughty children in a bag, draggingthem to Spaionm, where ''Sinterklaas'' and Black Pete came from.
Black Pete was dressed ridiculously:In a so called ''Moorish costume'' ,which was mainly based onthe paintings of white masters in  the Netherlands,picturing themselves with servants or slaves dressedin Moorish clothes, [see the photo's in my article].
So imaging Black Pete like that, symbols, seen in the lightof slavery, a subordinate role. Inferiority of ''race''

And Black Pete not only was dressed in that costume in the 19th century, but sticked to it untill now, 2018, the 21st century!
This is no innocent folklore, but downright racism, because throughthe 19th century and a great deal of the 20th century, Black Pete remained''funny'', ''stupid'', ''agressive'' and most of all:A servant.
Moreover it stroked, that Black Pete spoke with a strangeSurinamese like accent [but not real Surinamese: Suriname orDutch Guyana is an ex colony of the Netherlands with ahistory of slavery and it lies in South America, north of Brasil] [7]While ''Sinterklaas'' spoke the Dutch language correctly from themoment he first came from Spain and set footin the Netherlands with his steamboat!
In a colonial and later post colonial society, which had developedinstitutional racism [8] the Figure of Black Pete helped to confirma negative inmage of black people in general, consciously or, andthat's worse, subconsciously. [9]
Admitted, during the second half of the 20th century and nowadays,the strange accent with which Zwarte Piet spoke [in contrary with Sinterklaas] is gone, but the other strereotypes, slave earrings, fat red lips, a strange Afro hair piece, stupid behaviour and especiallythe black skin of course, still remain.
Blackface/Golliwog
Similarities with the racist caricature of Black Pete wereGolliwog [in Great Britain] [10] and in the USA, Black Face charactersin theatres and films [11], both also originated in the 19th century [12]
Although  Golliwogs and Blackface stereotypes have not completely disapeared, they are on their retour and at least most modernpeople acknowledge the racist character and peopole maintainingGolliwog or Blackface are being pointed as backward and racist.[13]
In the Netherlands however, anti Black Pete protests still cause a storm.More about that in a minute.But first about the sillty arguments of the Black Pete defenders:

BLACK PETE DEFENDERS:A
BLACK PETE WAS NOT AN INVENTIONOF JAN SCHENKMAN, HE ALREADY WAS A COMPANION OF SINTERKLAAS MEDIEVAL TIMES



Now some defenders of Blackface Zwarte Piet go out of their way to prove, thatSinterklaas also in the Medieval Netherlands was accompanied by black men, or black ghosts, or whatsoever. [14]
Maybe, maybe notOpinions differ [15]
But so what, if he already existed in the Middle Ages!The point is not, whether before the 19th century there was [perhaps] a black companion of Sinterklaas.Point is the RACIST CARICATURE Black Pete has become fromthe 19th century untill now!And that's the reason of the protests, not whether there was some black ghostor companion in the Middle Ages.
Because to put things clear:
The concept of ''race'', especially the black race inferior to the''white race'' is an invention from the 17th century, the periodof transatlantic slavery and slavery in the America's [16]The horror period of slavery in the America's, which lastedat least 300 years, provided the patterns of black ''inferiority''
So Black Pete was a product from that background:Black Pete being subordinate to the white Sinterklaas andBlack Pete being stupid and inferior because of hisblackness.
BLACK PETE DEFENDERS
B
BLACK PETE IS BLACK, COMING FROM THE CHIMNEY
Black Pete defenders argue, that there is nothing stereotype orracist to the Figure Black Pete, sincwe his blackness stems fromcoming out of the chimney. [17]
Now that may be the explanation for the [possible] black companionsof Sinterklaas in the Middle Ages in different European countries [18],but, again, that was in the Middle Ages and has nothing to do withthe racist caricature of the 19th century Black Pete.And it is utter nonsense to allege, that the nowadays racistcaricature became ''black'', coming from the chimney.Or does ''coming out of the chimney'' means, that someonegets an Afro hairpiece, silly golden earrings, fat lips, a Moorishdress and and all black skin?
It would have been more convincing, when such a figure hadtraces of soot in his face, as the way opposers of theracist Black Pete caricature want to reform the character now.In the socalled ''roetveegpieten'' [in English ''soot faced Petes'', seeone of the photo's at the article]

CONSEQUENCES OF BLACK PETE RACISMDISCRIMINATION AND TEASING
Black Pete defenders always refer to the traditionSinterklaas/Zwarte Piet [Black Pete] as a Feastfor Children.
But nothing is less true:Because during Sinterklaas time, black children are being teased  [and were teased]
with the appearance of Black Pete, not only callingthem ''Zwarte Piet'' [Black Pete],  but also ''stupid'', ''ugly'',''dirty'' and more demeaning words. [19]
And to my opinion and many other protesters of Black Pete,a children's Feast is only a children's Feast, if ALL childrenbenefit from it!

PROTESTS AGAINST BLACKFACE BLACK PETE
There's much to say about the protests and demonstrationsagainst the racist caricature Black Pete and I am not going to mentionthem all [that would fill a book], but a brief overview:
Although there were decennialong protests against Black Pete, in 2011there was a real breakthrouigh, when a group of five black artists,among else Quincy Gario and Kno'ledge Cesare [Jerry Affryie], protestedat the Grand Entrance of Sinterklaas in Dordrecht, holding a T shirtwith the text ''"Zwarte Piet is Racism", met police brutality andwere arrested. [20]
But police brutality didn't prevent people from protesting!Protest organisations against Black Pete racism were founded,like Kick Out Zwarte Piet, which organizes the annual antiBlackface Black Pete demonstrations! [21]
From 2011 peaceful anti Black Pete protesters were metby fierce police brutality.I can't recall all incidents here, but one horror exampleare two different arrests of one of the Kick Out Zwarte Piet leaders,Kno'ledge Cesare [who also protested at Dordrecht in 2011and met police brutality too], one in Gouda and the otherin Rotterdam.See Youtube films under note 22
Massarrests of peaceful anti Black Pete protesters took place,also accompanied with police violence.[23]
See for more information under note 24
THREATS
Every society struggles with changes of behaviour and tradition,so it is not strange, that a majority of Dutch people didn't see the point, felt [sometimes] offended because they wrongly thought of being accused of racism [it is the caricature that's racist, notnecessarily the people, who love Zwarte Piet. That dependsof their behaviour and remarks regarding the subject], andstood behind the Fairy Tale Figure of their youth.
Yet it's interesting to see, that although Black Pete defendersargued, that Black Pete is ''only a Feast for children'', many Dutch adults were very upset about any criticism of ZwartePiet [Black Pete] and sent furious reactions and even death threats to people, who opposed Zwarte Piet, likeAnouk, a popular singer and the Dutch children's Ombudsman,who wrote a very critical report about Zwarte Piet, emphasizing,that the Figure of Black Pete leads to discrimination anda low self esteem of black children. [25]If it is ''only a Children's Feast'', why then all the fuss?
Even worse:When the opposers of Zwarte Piet were black, they receivedracist threats as death threats, like happened to TV presentatorand now politician Sylvana Simons and other black Zwarte Piet protesters.[26]

SO AGAIN:If this is all about a Children's Feast, why all this fuss?Why all those violent threats and even racist attacks?
Is it not clear, that especially those racist attacks reveal whatmoves many Black Face defenders most:Racism?Is that not a clear proof, that what they defend is a racisttradition also?Because, again, why else black children are being teased,sometimes very maliciously, with being ''dirty'' and ''stupid'' as Black Pete [27], giving them a low self esteem, as they themselves testimony. [28]
And  not only their testimony:The Dutch children's Ombudsman wrote a very critical report about Zwarte Piet, emphasizing,that the Figure of Black Pete leads to discrimination anda low self esteem of black children. [29]
BIZARRE AND A BIT OF FUN''BLOKKEERFRIEZEN'' [IN ENGLISH: FRISIANS, WHOBLOCK THE HIGHWAY]
In the fight for keeping Black Pete it can't be bizarre enough.After the announcement, that the National Grand Entrance ofSinterklaas [there are a lot of local Entrances too, but this oneis sponsored by TV and broadcasted] would take place in the small Frisian town Dokkum, the organisation Kick Out Zwarte Piet announced [in the Netherlands one doesn't have to ask permission to demonstrate, but has to announce it to themayor of the city, who can only forbid or limit the demonstration,when there is a danger of disturbing the peace] its anti Black Pete demonstration and agreements were made with the major.However, pro Blackface people heard that and a localbusinesswoman, Jenny Douwes, incited people onFacebook to protest against it.This resulted in a dangerous b;lockade of the highwayon the place the busses with the anti Blackface protesterswere approaching Dokkum.Result:The demonstration didn't take place, for on the last momentythe mayor forbid it out of fear for clashes between pro and antiBlackface groups.In fact, the major was especially afraid for the coming of neo-nazi's, who would use the pro Blackface cause for their owndirty agenda.But the ''Blokkeerfriezen'' [the roadblocking Frisians] hadto face Court and were convicted because of violations of the right on demonstration [30]BIZARRE, Blocking a road to defend Blackface....
So far are people prepared to go.....


CHANGES

But since we are not longer living in the 19th century with fervent colonialism, slavery and white supremacy ideas, changesin the Figure of Blackface Zwarte Piet are inevitable, despite alldeath threats, hatespeeches and a road blockade.You see it already in the steets:A growing number of children go to the Grand Entrance ofSinterklaas as soot faced Petes or sometimes as they are.See the foto's at this article.But also the colour of Pete is changing.You see a growing number of soot faced Petes, accompanyingSinterklaas. A growing  number of schools have said ''Goodbye'' to Black Pete and allow only soot faced Petes. [31]High profile store ''De Bijenkorf'' has Golden Petes from 2015[32]The big supermarkets react in varying way.The ''zak''  of Sinterklaas[''zak'' in English: bag, where the candies or presentsare hidden en is believed, that ''Black Pete'' is puttingnaughty children in to bring them to Spain, whereSinterklaas and Pete live] is mostly not imaged withBlack Pete anymore, but with Sinterklaas himself.Some supermarkets change the colour of Black Pete,but most of them offer a variety of colours, including black.
The grocery chain Lidl is the only one reported to have completely eliminated images deemed racial caricatures. They will have coloring pictures that children may color as they choose.  [33]
However, like most developments, changes are going faster andearlier in the big cities than in smaller towns and villages.Thus the areas of North and South Holland and Utrecht have seen the most change, while Drenthe, Friesland, and Zeeland, the least.  [34] 

CHANGESCHILDREN'S OMBUDSMAN
I already mentioned the report of the children's OmbudsmanSeptember 30, 2016, suggesting that Zwarte Pete be "stripped of discriminatory or stereotypical characteristics." Otherwise children's rights for fair treatment and protection from discrimination may be violated. "The figure of Zwarte Piet can contribute to bullying, exclusion or discrimination, and is therefore contrary to the [International Convention on the Rights of the Child]," the report continued. "Many [children of color] who experience discrimination in their daily lives say that it's worse around Sinterklaas time." And further, "Several Black children found the typical characteristics and buffoonish behavior of Black Pete to be 'negative and discriminatory against people with dark skin.'" These characteristics "must be changed so children of colour do not experience any adverse effects, and every child feels safe" during  Sinterklaastijd. [35]
I also mentioned, that following the report the Children's Ombudsman received dozens of angry reactions and numerous threats.  [36]

Again:If it is about ''just a Children's Feast'', why then all those hysterical reactions?
BLACK PETE GOES INTERNATIONAL!UNCONDEMNATION OF BLACK PETE
The fight against the racist caricature Black Pete is supportedinternantionally and at an important level.The United Nations!
The United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discriminationwrote a report, issued in 2015, demanding from the Dutch government a change in the racist features of Black Pete  [37]
I quote from the report:
'' While the Committee understands that the tradition of Sinterklaas and Black Pete is enjoyed by many persons in Dutch society, the Committee notes with concern that the character of Black Pete is sometimes portrayed in a manner that reflects negative stereotypes of people of African descent and is experienced by many people of African descent as a vestige of slavery, which is injurious to the dignity and self-esteem of children and adults of African descent.  '' 
Another quote:
'' Considering that even a deeply-rooted cultural tradition does not justify discriminatory practices and stereotypes, the Committee recommends that the State party actively promote the elimination of those features of the character of Black Pete which reflect negative stereotypes and are experienced by many people of African descent as a vestige of slavery. The Committee recommends that the State party find a reasonable balance, such as a different portrayal of Black Pete and ensure respect of human dignity and human rights of all inhabitants of the State party. The Committee further recommends that the State party ensure non-discrimination in the enjoyment of freedom of expression and association, and that attacks on protesters be effectively investigated and duly prosecuted.'' [38]
Earlier, in 2013, Verene Shephard, a Un official, wrote the Dutch governmentwith the same sort of critics about Black PeteI quote from the letter:
'' The character and image of Black Pete perpetuate a stereotyped image of African people and people of African descent as second-class citizens, fostering an underlying sense of inferiority within Dutch society and stirring racial differences as well as racism. During the celebration, numerous people playing the Black Pete figure blacken their faces, wear bright red lipstick as well as afro wigs. The Black Pete figure is to act as a fool and as a servant of Santa Claus. The Black Pete segment of Santa Claus celebrations is experienced by African people and people of African descent as a living trace of past slavery and oppression, tracing back to the country’s past involvement in the trade of African slaves in the previous centuries. Reportedly, a growing opposition to the racial profiling of Black Pete within the Dutch society, including by people of non-African origins, is to be noticed. However, it is also alleged that no response has been given to associations defending the rights of African people and people of African descent in the Netherlands, which are asking for dialogue on this issue.''[39]
Clear language, as well from the UN report as the letter of mrs Verene Shephard!

PART II

THE FACE OF FASCISM

Invoke a terrifying internal and external enemyTEN STEPS TO CLOSE DOWN AN OPEN SOCIETYhttps://www.huffingtonpost.com/naomi-wolf/ten-steps-to-close-down-a_b_46695.html
So we have seen backward stupidity, threaths, racist or not,road blockades and hateful stuff on social media.But it can be worse, when the Hand of fascism reveals itself:
One of the main characteristics of fascism is creatingscapegoats or ''enemies'' of the people orthe State.Another side is violence.
And both showed itself in a horror way:
DEMONISING LEADERS OF KICK OUT ZWARTE PIET:
THE TELEGRAPH ARTICLE/GHOSTS OF THE PAST
Not long ago [november 2018], extreme right wing and pro Pete journalist Weird Dukwrote a malicious article in the Dutch paper ''The Telegraph'',titled ''The danger of a radical agenda'', thereby demonisingthe Kick Out Zwarte Pete movement, accusing the leaders tobe ''dangerous'' and ''extreme'' [40]But the worst thing was the photo at the article, picturingMitchell Esajas and Kno'ledge Cesare [Jerry Afriyie] assinister figures, looking down at a peaceful Dutch landscapewith mills and dark clouds as the foreboding of a catastrophe. [41]
This horror photo is going back in Time, when - in Nazi Germanyof the thirty years- Jews were portrayed equally.I mention here especially a drawing of a Jew, looking downon a world Globe, which reminds of the Telegraphimage of Mitchell Esajas and Jerry Affriyie, looking downon the Netherlands......
And it is not out of the blue, that I make this comparisonin regard to the Telegraph:
For the Telegraph has a bad reputation in the past, havingcollaborated with the nazi German occupation in theNetherlands in the Second World War!See under note 42 an antisemitic article in the Telegraphfrom 1942.I quote a passage [first in Dutch]

Jood is en blijft Duitsland's vijand, of hij nu uit

Portugal, of kersvers uit Jeruzalem, al dan niet voorzien

van een Nederlandse pas of identiteiotskaart, hier verzeild is geraakt'

Translated In English:

''Jew is and remains the enemy of Germany, whether he

set foot in the Netherlands, coming from Portugal, or

newly arrived from Jerusalem, whether or not

in the possession of a Dutch passport or identity card.''

SO

Apparently, the Telegraph has learned nothing from the past......


FASCIST AGRESSION AGAINST PEACEFUL BLACK PETE

DEMONSTRATORS


The hateful article was only the beginning:

During the Entrance of Sinterklaas, which takes place in several

cities and towns [the National Entrance, which also is broadcasted

on TV, was in Zaanstad, North Holland], there were anti Black Pete 

protests in at least 18 cities across the Netherlands and while the

Black Pete protesters were peaceful, a bunch of fascist thugs attacked

the protesters in several cities with eggs, bananas and beer cans and what was

still worse [and the reason why I call them ''fascist thugs''], some brought 

Hitler salutes and uttered racist insults. [43]


You can see photo's of the agressive fascist gangs at my article.


Especially in Eindhoven and Rotterdam, pro Pete gangs were very

agrressive. [44]

In Nijmegen en Zwolle,  anti Black Pete demonstrations were cancelled , after mayors said they could not guarantee protesters’ safety. [45]


These are very dangerous developments, because 

succeeding in violence, although there were

arrests too [46] fascist thugs get confidence and

will enlarge their street operations, which 

leads to as well more fascist power as intimidation

of their opponent.

And the very fascist streetoperations is a direct 

threat to black migrants and other migrants'

of colour.

Combined with the two fascist political parties,

the PVV [Party for Freedom] of G Wilders and the Forum for Democracy of Thierry Baudet [47]


EPILOGUE

THE MANY FACES OF FASCISM


Evidently not all pro Black Pete supporters are racists, nor 

are all pro Black Pete supporters, who attacked the Black Pete

supporters fascists.

Some indeed were ''asos'' [anti socials], like prime minister Rutte stated. [48]

But that's not the point here.

The whole thing lies in the fact, that fascists 

have made the Black Pete question to their cause,

because this seemingly ''innocent'' Sinterklaas

Feast with Black Pete is an easy way to reach many

people, since the majority of the Dutch still valuates

''Zwarte Piet'' [49]

So not only politically, but also by means of

a Feast, fascism gradually creeps into Dutch society.

Like a poison snake.

Fascism is:

Extreme, hierarchic State control with a dominant

Leader.

Exclusion of all people, who are ''foreign'' and thus, according to fascists, don't belong to

the ''Pure Nation [Pure ''race'', here of course

the ''white race'']'', whether they are Jews or black people.

Fascism stands for intimidation and terror and that was exactly what fascists did with the attacks on

peaceful Black Pete protesters!

And fascism is always seeking for a scapegoat,

an ''enemy'', who operates inside the ''Pure Nation''

as a sort of fifth colonne. [50]

And what suits Dutch white [of course there is fascism in other parts of the world too with different ''scapegoats''] facists better than pick up black people and other people of colour, who are already being discriminated and often treated as secondhand civilians.

And the best of it:

In order to win those Dutch people overr, who don't want to

be openly racist, that socalled ''innocent Children's

Feast ''Sinterklaas'is the best way to attack black people, since the most Black Pete protesters are black

[although there are many white allies to in

the fight against Zwarte Piet]


So that explains the sudden fascist interest in

Black Pete.


But there is more to worry about than the link

fascism-Zwarte Piet, since almost certainly

Zwarte Piet is going to dissapear.

Because fascism is multitasking!

Directed against refugees [who mostly are black

or of colour], black people and people of colour

in general, Jews [although somewhat hidden because of

the past], Roma [''gypsies'' a pejorative term for Roma]

But they are also anti EU ,anti the governmental ''elite'

and against the detoriation of the health services in

the Netherrlands.

And that seeming diversity, sometimes with 

some thruth in it [as their objections against the

governmental elite and their seeming worries

about the detoriation of the health services in

the Netherlands]


But the binding element is their racist hatred and

extreme law and order mentality.

To fight fascism in word and deed, that is

the task that lie ahead of us.

Before it is too late.


Astrid Essed


NOTES




[1]

WIKIPEDIAZWARTE PIET [TEXT IN ENGLISH]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zwarte_Piet




[2]
WIKIPEDIABLACKFACE/FILM
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackface#Film


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIABLACKFACE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackface


[3]

WIKIPEDIASAINT NICHOLAS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Nicholas



[4]
SEE UNDERLYING BACKGROUND ARTICLE ABOUTTHE DUTCH ''SINTERKLAAS''
BUT FIRST:
WARNING::IN THIS ARTICLE THERE IS A CONFUSIONBETWEEN THE AMERICAN FATHER CHRISTMAS [SANTACLAUS]] AND THE DUTCH ''SINTERKLAAS'', SINCE THE ARTICLESUGGESTS, THAT ''SINTERKLAAS'' IS A SORT OFFATHER CHRISTMAS, OR A DUTCH FORM OF CHRISTMASCELEBREATION.THAT IS NOT TRUE:
THE AMERICAN ''SANTA CLAUS'' IS DERIVED FROMTHE DUTCH [AND EUROPEAN] FAIRY TALE FIGURE ''SINTERKLAAS''' GOOD GIVER OF PRESENTS [ALSO IN DIFFERENT EUROPEAN COUNTRIES]
AND ''SINTERKLAAS'' IS DERIVED AGAIN FROM THE HISTORICAL FIFURE''SAINT NICHOLAS'', HISTORICALLY  A BISHOP  FROM MYRA IN ANATOLIA [WHAT IS NOW TURKEY], WHO LIVED INAND ABOUT 270 UNTIL 343]
SEE ALSO
WIKIPEDIASAINT NICHOLAS/VENERATIONS AND CELEBRATIONS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Nicholas#Veneration_and_celebrations

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIASAINT NICHOLAS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Nicholas


SO THE ''SINTERKLAAS'' CELEBREATIONS EXISTED ALREADYIN THE MIDDLE AGES, SOMETIMES ACCOMPANIEDBY A BLACK PAINTED FIGURE [A SORT OFTIJL UYLENSPIEGEL [EULENSPIEGEL]-KNAVE, NOT BLACK PETE ASA RACIST CARICATURE, SINCE THE CONCEPT OF RACISM[IN THE SENSE OF THE WHITE ''RACE'' SUPERIOR OVER THEBLACK ''RACE''] WAS AN INVENTION FROM THE 17TH CENTURY, WHEN THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVETRADE FLOURISHED IN EUROPEANLANDS.
WIKIPEDIATILL EULENSPIEGEL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Till_Eulenspiegel


NOW YOU CAN READ THE BACKGROUND ARTICLE

BACKGROUND ARTICLEINFORMATION ABOUT ''BLACK PETE''
''Mark Mardell explains the festive customs in the Low Countries that prompt an ethical debate – from Sinterklaas the noble Santa Claus figure, to his mischievous minstrel sidekick Zwarte Piet (Black Pete).''

HISTORY EXTRAA CHRISTMAS CONTROVERSERY

https://www.historyextra.com/period/a-christmas-controversy/


[5]

''In 1850, Amsterdam-based primary school teacher Jan Schenkman published the book Sint Nikolaas en zijn Knecht ("Saint Nicholas and his Servant"), the first time that a servant character is introduced in a printed version of the Saint Nicholas narrative.''
WIKIPEDIADEVELOPMENT AND DEPICTION IN THE 19TH ABND 20TH CENTURIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zwarte_Piet#Development_and_depiction_in_the_19th_and_20th_centuries

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAZWARTE PIET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zwarte_Piet



[6]




''In 1833, an Amsterdam-based magazine made humorous reference to "Pietermanknecht" in describing the fate that those who had sneaked out of their houses to attend that year's St. Nicholas celebrations were supposed to have met upon their return home.''
WIKIPEDIADEVELOPMENT AND DEPICTION IN THE 19TH ABND 20TH CENTURIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zwarte_Piet#Development_and_depiction_in_the_19th_and_20th_centuries

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAZWARTE PIET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zwarte_Piet

[7]
SURINAM OR IN COLONIAL TIMES ''DUTCH GUIANA]SURINAM IS INDEPENDENT SINCE 1975!
WIKIPEDIASURINAM (DUTCH COLONY)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surinam_(Dutch_colony)


[8]

WIKIPEDIAINSTITUTIONAL RACISM
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institutional_racism

DUTCHVIEW.COMRACISM IN THE NETHERLANDS: TALKING ABOUT THE ELEPHANT IN THE ROOM25 OCTOBER 20917
https://dutchreview.com/culture/living-in-the-netherlands/racism-in-the-netherlands/


AL JAZEERASYLVANA SIMONS: RACISM IS ACCEPTEDIN THE NETHERLANDS18 JANUARY 2017

https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/01/sylvana-simons-racism-accepted-netherlands-170118095205530.html

''Perhaps for outsiders, it does not take much to recognize that the figure of Black Pete—with his black face, big red lips, curly hair, and inherently subordinate position next to Sinterklaas—is a caricature borne out of the Netherlands’ colonial past. The Netherlands, however, is ill-equipped to deal with the colonial past or recognize its present day legacy.

School curricula do little to educate the population about the country’s “Golden Age”; the appalling exploits of the Dutch East and West India Company and the Dutch slave trade fill very few pages in the history books of primary and high schools. Ninsee, the one institution that has worked to raise awareness about the history and legacy of slavery outside of formal education, recently saw its state subsidies cut so drastically that it had to close.''


OPEN SOCIETY FOUNDATIONS

''BLACK PETE'' AND THE LEGACY OF RACISM IN THE

NETHERLANDS


https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/voices/black-pete-and-legacy-racism-netherlands


DUTCH ELECTIONS 2017/PVV IN POWER OR NOT/

TERROR REIGN OR FREEDOM

ASTRID ESSED

14 MARCH 2017


https://www.astridessed.nl/dutch-elections-2017pvv-in-power-or-notterror-reign-or-freedom/






[9]

DUTCHVIEW.COMRACISM IN THE NETHERLANDS: TALKING ABOUT THE ELEPHANT IN THE ROOM25 OCTOBER 20917
https://dutchreview.com/culture/living-in-the-netherlands/racism-in-the-netherlands/



[10]

WIKIPEDIAGOLLIWOG

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golliwog


[11]

WIKIPEDIABLACKFACE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackface


[12]
''The golliwoggolliwogg or golly is a black fictional character created by Florence Kate Upton that appears in children's books in the late 19th century and usually depicted as a type of rag doll. It was reproduced, both by commercial and hobby toy-makers as a children's toy called the "golliwog", and had great popularity in the UK and Australia into the 1970s. The doll is characterised by black skin, eyes rimmed in white, clown lips and frizzy hair.''
WIKIPEDIAGOLLIWOG

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golliwog

''Blackface is a form of theatrical make-up used predominantly by non-black performers to represent a caricature of a black person. It has been considered a racially insensitive representation of blackness by the African American community. The practice gained popularity during the 19th century and contributed to the spread of racial stereotypessuch as the "happy-go-lucky darky on the plantation" or the "dandified coon".
WIKIPEDIABLACKFACE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackface


[13]

WIKIPEDIAGOLLIWOG
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golliwog


WIKIPEDIABLACKFACE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackface


[14]
Pete is Black because he travels through the chimney. There is a lot of controversy regarding this explanation. People who oppose Black Pete assume that this is just a lame excuse to cover up his real being. If you look at the other giftbringers in Europe however you will find that this explanation is used everywhere to explain the blackness of these midwintercreatures. This is a perfectly reasonable explanation for the fact that Black Pete is much older that most people think and that this was said about predecessors (e.g. the Black Klazen (Nicholasses) and the figures with hides and horns) that did exist in the Netherlands before 1850 and also that Black Pete is very closely tied to these other giftbringers and has a common origin. ''
 BLACK PETE HISTORY WEEBLY.COM
BLACK PETE: HISTORY OF THE CHARACTER
https://blackpetehistory.weebly.com/

TEXT[Whole text below, because sometimes the linkdoesn't work]

The Sint en Pieten Gilde clearly shows that Black Peter was not invented by Schenkman

Nowadays it is often assumed that Black Pete is more or less a creation of the schoolmaster Jan Schenkman who wrote a book in 1850: St. Nicholas and his servant. Furthermore, one assumes that he and his illustrators were inspired by paintings of luxurious pages, black lackeys in the service of nobles in Europe. By starting from this lineage and not being critical with regard to the accuracy of this assumption, historically correct ways of portraying Zwarte Piet are wrongly interpreted as racist. The introduction of the Grand Entrance in the village or city, the country of origin: Spain and the Servant are often attributed to Jan Schenkman, making his book seem a blueprint for the current St. Nicholas Feast. However, he didn;t invent the Grand Entrance, the home country of Spain and Zwarte Piet. He has been however the one who added the arrival by steamboat. Click here or on the green colored title above to read the document. The text is now available in English as well. There are some typing errors but it will certainly give you lots of info and an extensive list of sources.

Introduction

Black Pete is an important figure for the Dutch Sinterklaas celebrations on December 5th.  Much controversy surrounds the figure of Black Pete (Zwarte Piet).  The biggest problem lies in the fact that people can't say: I don't agree with you in an acceptable way. On both sides this is accompanied by insults, cursing each other out, silencing people or worse. Some claim that Zwarte Piet is racist, but this claim is far too strong, considering his origins, history, and practices. Most people do not know the cultural back story that this tradition is set in. The very negative judgement on Black Pete is based on incomplete and incorrect information about the celebration and the figure of Black Pete. This leads to conclusions that do not take into account the Dutch and European history of the celebrations that play an important part in Black Pete. This history is ignored as if it never took place. The approach from colonialism and slavery usually doesn't leave any room for this other history to be considered and suggestions for change take the form of forced obligation that should have no place in this discussion. Some antipete groups are quick to put the label of racist on anyone who doesn't agree with their statements or is critical about the claims that are made and the sources that are used. This attitude is wrong and harmful. Even more because information provided on Black Pete is too often incorrect and incomplete.

Traditions of original inhabitants.

Most likely there is room for improvement where his looks are concerned for negative associations to go away seeing as he does look a lot like blackface now apparently to people who are not familiar with the custom and it's history. Changing Black Pete and the direction this should take, should take into account the feelings of all people affected by this change and their respective history. To claim that Pete is racist without taking anything else into account even denying other explanations of the character are incomplete and can therefore never be "the truth". This seems to be completely lost in the urge to get Black Pete on the agenda and this is not right. Also people should take into account the many changes Black Pete has undergone both in behaviour and appearance. The current Black Pete is not the Black Pete of peoples youth (even though the connection with our ancestors is apparent and should stay that way!) A lot is changed already and people should be aware of that. Also people should get themselves acquanted with the whole history of Black Pete and not focus solely on one aspect, take it out of context and put it under a looking glass. This complete history should be told to children also! It is very important that all of the information should play a role in the discussion between the pro's and anti's.
It is very important to consider that he is part of the tradition of the indigenous peoples of this region, regardless of other influences that may have had an effect on him in some cases! It should also be noted that this doesn't affect Black Pete as a whole and it isn't factual to make these claims as a generalisation. This means at least that he should not be destroyed or changed beyond recognition, just because people do not understand or like the tradition. The black colour is an important and original element. This is 2014 and it may be expected for all people to take this into consideration regarding this issue.

On this website the right to protest against Black Pete is supported. This also goes for the right of others to disagree with certain claims that are made by anti-Black Pete groups. Racism is something that should be eliminated from society. Extremist views and violence surrounding this issue from both the pro- and the antiside are strongly opposed. Working towards a solution is the goal.

This site provides information on the origins and history of this character.  Many people seem to think thatZwarte Piet was introduced only 150 years ago, but this is not true.  Black Pete, or the companion of Sinterklaas, dates back to pagan times.  When the church wanted to wipe out the pagan traditions, they added the character of Sinterklaas.  This pagan character (Zwarte Piet) became the companion of Saint Nicholas.  In the Netherlands, as well as in the whole of Europe, Sinterklaas (aka Santa Claus) is accompanied by an (often black) helper.  His appearance varies from country to country, but he can (usually) be recognized by four distinctive characteristics:
1.  His masquerade (of which the simplest form is a black face)
2.  His chain
3.  His bag or basket (sometimes filled with coals).  In the Netherlands, the sweets (pepernoten) and presents are in the bag.
4.  His switch (roe)
also hides and horns are often seen.

Overlap in appearance, conduct and character

The overlap that is visible in the black face between the historical Black Pete figures and the current Black Petes sticks out here. In the review of what Blackface is we will also address overlap in his conduct and character. It is important that people are aware of this when trying to interpret the figure. Clinging rigidly to a one-dimensional explanation for the current Black Pete is both incomplete and wrong. Changing Black Pete to a figure that doesn't look like blackface should take into account the importance of the figure being unrecognizable, history and the symbolism of black and white in the celebration. The nightly visit from Black Pete and the fact that his face is invisible in the night, is a crucial part of the celebration. Who doesn't stand by the front door and is sure that he sees Black Pete disappear in the night right after the doorbell has rung or a heavy knockin was heard and the bag with presents stands at the door! This being able to/not being able to see Black Pete is very important!

Through the chimney

Pete is Black because he travels through the chimney. There is a lot of controversy regarding this explanation. People who oppose Black Pete assume that this is just a lame excuse to cover up his real being. If you look at the other giftbringers in Europe however you will find that this explanation is used everywhere to explain the blackness of these midwintercreatures. This is a perfectly reasonable explanation for the fact that Black Pete is much older that most people think and that this was said about predecessors (e.g. the Black Klazen (Nicholasses) and the figures with hides and horns) that did exist in the Netherlands before 1850 and also that Black Pete is very closely tied to these other giftbringers and has a common origin. The chimney explanation is used for Schmutzli (Zwitserland),  for Befana (Italy) and for Pere Fouettard (France), and for Knecht Ruprecht (Germany).

The Reformation

During the reformation, the Sinterklaas tradition was attacked by the church.  The people, however, kept celebrating.  This means that the absence of Sinterklaas and  Black Pete in drawings and paintings can also be attributed to this.  Some people see this as evidence that black Black Petefigures didn't exist before 1850, but there is much valuable information available to contradict this belief.The heavy rattling with chains and bells, knocking on doors which is spoken of in many old Dutch texts refers to the fact that there were certainly figures going around around December 5th in the same manner as we remember Black Pete. This website tries to gather this information and make it available, so everyone can form their own opinion.

[15]



'''The Saint Nicholas tradition contains a number of elements that are not ecclesiastical in origin.[8][9] In medieval iconography, Saint Nicholas is sometimes presented as taming a chained devil, who may or may not be black. However, no hint of a companion, devil, servant, or any other human or human-like fixed companion to the Saint is found in visual and textual sources from the Netherlands from the 16th until the 19th century''''

WIKIPEDIAZWARTE PIET/ORIGINS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zwarte_Piet#Origins


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAZWARTE PIET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zwarte_Piet

Pete is Black because he travels through the chimney. There is a lot of controversy regarding this explanation. People who oppose Black Pete assume that this is just a lame excuse to cover up his real being. If you look at the other giftbringers in Europe however you will find that this explanation is used everywhere to explain the blackness of these midwintercreatures. This is a perfectly reasonable explanation for the fact that Black Pete is much older that most people think and that this was said about predecessors (e.g. the Black Klazen (Nicholasses) and the figures with hides and horns) that did exist in the Netherlands before 1850 and also that Black Pete is very closely tied to these other giftbringers and has a common origin. ''
 BLACK PETE HISTORY WEEBLY.COM
BLACK PETE: HISTORY OF THE CHARACTER
https://blackpetehistory.weebly.com/

[16]


'' This attitude was first developed by European immigrants to the Americas, and expressed through their judgement of Native Americans. Peoples seen as "savage" by Europeans were considered to be sub-human—lacking any sort of culture or history—and living in anarchy.......,,,,,,,''Different variations of the "savage" stereotype developed for numerous reasons based on the social/economic/ political issues within Europe at the time, as well as the colonial agenda of Europe as a whole towards the 'undeveloped' worlds.''

HUMANITYINACTION.ORG
BLACK PETE: ANALIZING A RACIALIZED DUTCH TRADITIONTHROUGH THE HISTORY OF WESTERN CREATIONS OF STEREOTYPESOF BLACK PEOPLES

https://www.humanityinaction.org/knowledgebase/255-black-pete-analyzing-a-racialized-dutch-tradition-through-the-history-of-western-creations-of-stereotypes-of-black-peoples



TELESURENGLISH.NETBLACKFACE TRADITION LAYS BARE DEEP-SEATED RACISM INTHE NETHERLANDSJEROME ROOS
https://www.telesurenglish.net/opinion/Blackface-Tradition-Lays-Bare-Deep-Seated-Racism-in-Netherlands-20141125-0050.html
UNDERLYING ARTICLE MISTAKENLY REFERSTO SINTERKLAAS [SAINT NICHOLAS] AS TO A ''CHRISTMAS TRADITION'':BUT:
The American ''Father Christmas'' Santa Claus and the Dutch''Sinterklaas are two different Fairy Tale Figures, although Santa Clausis derived from the Medieval Dutch ''Sinterlklaas''So the Dutch Feast of ''Sinterklaaas'' [5 december]  is not Christmas Feast!
THE IRISH TIMESTHE CONTROVERSIAL CHRISTMAS TRADITION OF BLACKFACE IN THE NETHERLANDSAOIFE DORAN22 DECEMBER 2017
https://www.irishtimes.com/life-and-style/abroad/the-controversial-christmas-tradition-of-blackface-in-the-netherlands-1.3336142



'' The one good thing that’s come out of the entire debate is that it forces each of us to work out what our ideas are, what kind of culture we want to live in, and what defines a country. Black Pete should belong to the past. We should know better than to hang on to a tradition with racist undertones. As a society, we need to take a hard look at ourselves, and think about what future we want.''
THE GUARDIANBLACK PETE: THE SCANDAL WE DUTCH CAN'T BE SILENT ANYMORE14 NOVEMBER 2018
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/nov/14/black-pete-scandal-dutch-silent-sinterklaas

BRITISH LIBRARYTHE SLAVE TRADE - A HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/campaignforabolition/abolitionbackground/abolitionintro.html

''Probably no more than a few hundred thousand Africans were taken to the Americas before 1600. In the 17th century, however, demand for slave labour rose sharply with the growth of sugar plantations in the Caribbean and tobacco plantations in the Chesapeake region in North America. The largest numbers of slaves were taken to the Americas during the 18th century, when, according to historians’ estimates, nearly three-fifths of the total volume of the transatlantic slave trade took place.''
ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICATRANSATLANTIC SLAVETRADE
https://www.britannica.com/topic/transatlantic-slave-trade

[17]

''Pete is Black because he travels through the chimney. ''
BLACK PETE HISTORY WEEBLY.COM
BLACK PETE: HISTORY OF THE CHARACTER
https://blackpetehistory.weebly.com/

[18]

''Pete is Black because he travels through the chimney. There is a lot of controversy regarding this explanation. People who oppose Black Pete assume that this is just a lame excuse to cover up his real being. If you look at the other giftbringers in Europe however you will find that this explanation is used everywhere to explain the blackness of these midwintercreatures.''

BLACK PETE HISTORY WEEBLY.COM
BLACK PETE: HISTORY OF THE CHARACTER
https://blackpetehistory.weebly.com/


[19]

''"They would call me Zwarte Piet, or you are dirty just like Zwarte Piet. You are only good to be Zwarte Piet."

Until then, he thought the Sinterklaas festivities were just about fun and collecting sweets.

"I was a child and not politically aware, but I realized we played this dress up with this character who is dumb, who is silly, who doesn't know much, who needs someone to lead the way, who keeps messing up, who is looking very ugly, and then realising that I am the butt of the joke, I was 12 years old when I realised it.''


AL JAZEERA

ZWARTE PIET: BLACK PETE IS DUTCH RACISM

IN FULL DISPLAY

27 NOVEMBER 2018

https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/zwarte-piet-black-pete-dutch-racism-full-display-181127153936872.html


THE GUARDIANBLACK PETE IS JUST A BIT OF FUN FOR THE NETHERLANDS, RIGHT?WRONGSAMIRA BIN SHARIFU19 AUGUST 2014
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/aug/19/black-pete-netherlands-dutch-stereotypes-black-people-blacked-up-christmas


TEXT
I grew up with negative Dutch stereotypes of black people. Amsterdam is right to phase out ‘blacked-up’ Christmas characters 

As all the children gathered, I remember the feeling of anticipation in the school hall. It was November and I had recently started primary school. All of a sudden, there was a loud banging on the door. I remember looking around and seeing the terror on the other children’s faces when the doors flew open and several grown men stormed into the hall with their faces completely “blacked up”. The terror soon made way for joy when the men starting throwing candy around, but I was left in total confusion. These grown men with blacked-up faces, afros and big red lips were talking to me in broken Dutch and trying to make me smile by prancing around like a clown.


I remember wondering why they were trying to look like my father, and why they were acting so silly. My father was a smart man, a grown-up. These grown men in blackface were acting like misbehaving children.

It became even more confusing when St Nicholas himself entered. The tall, old, white man dressed like the pope was treated with the utmost respect by my teachers, who had been laughing at the blacked-up men that they referred to as Zwarte Pieten – Black Petes. 


As soon as St Nicholas entered, the Black Petes calmed down and silently followed his orders. I couldn’t understand the strange power that St Nicholas had over these grown men who had moments before seemed uncontrollable.

At that moment, I remember a creeping feeling that something about this was wrong. I knew that Black Pete’s behaviour was wrong and I knew the way St Nicholas was treating Black Pete was wrong, but I did not understand why. I looked around and saw the smiles of the other children and teachers, and thought the only explanation must be that I was the one who was wrong. From that moment onwards, I never thought to question Black Pete again. The acceptance and enjoyment of the tradition became a measure for how Dutch I was, and since Dutch culture was the only culture I knew, I was petrified to be excluded from it.


Last week, Amsterdam’s mayor made a statement that finally validated my creeping feeling by proposing a change of image for Black Pete. The proposed makeover follows a local court ruling that the depiction of Black Pete is, in fact, racist. The court determined that the character was “a negative stereotype of black people”. Soon after, the council of Amsterdam filed an appeal against the verdict arguing that the stereotype of Black Pete wasn’t negative. 
I grew up in a middle-class environment in The Hague where I could count all the people of colour on one hand. Racism was never that overt; perhaps because there weren’t that many of us, so we were not considered a threat. If any negative stereotyping occurred in my presence, it was always quickly followed by “but you’re different”. As a child, I was never sure if I should speak out against the negative stereotypes of black people being lazy, dirty or dumb because I was still afraid of being excluded. My silence came hand in hand with a pang of guilt for not sticking up for my own.
And then there were the seemingly positive stereotypes about black people being better at singing, dancing or sports, the example often being the black players in our national football team. I remember feeling proud when such remarks were made by white folks because that meant we had worth. What I did not yet understand was that a positive or romanticised stereotype strips a person of their humanity by denying them individuality in the same way that a negative one does. As noted by policy officer Izalina Tavares, all the Black Petes have the same name, the same face and the same characteristics. They are interchangeable. 

If I, as a person of colour, had to be taught that positive stereotypes are just as dehumanising as negative ones, and therefore racist, it is not surprising that a vast majority of Dutch people truly believe that there is nothing racist about Black Pete. He is loved by young and old, he’s funny, he’s giving, he’s athletic. Wouldn’t anyone want to be associated with these traits?

And yes, he can be childish, silly, and even a bit thick at times but we love him in spite of this, so no harm done, right? Wrong. As artist Bianca Berendshas written, research shows that stereotypes contribute to low self-esteem in children of colour and perpetuates the idea of white culture being superior to black culture, which in a multicultural environment will undeniably affect society as a whole.

The main problem is a lack of education on Dutch slavery and colonialism. I was taught in great detail the atrocities that were committed in the British empire, how the Americans dehumanised their African slaves and how racism in Germany led to the Holocaust. Never did we have one history lesson teaching us about the severity of Dutch conduct in Surinam, the Dutch Caribbean, Indonesia or South Africa. Perhaps if this schooling was there, Dutch people would find it easier to connect Black Pete with our history of slavery and racism.

The legacy of slavery and colonialism has preserved structural racism, so for many people of colour it is impossible to disconnect Black Pete from this legacy. Black Pete is a symbol of this legacy and as long as a post-racial society is still a utopian idea, the opposition of Black Pete is completely legitimised.


END OF THE ARTICLE



NEW ARTICLE:


''Stephanie and Abdirashid tell about their experiences with the national blackface tradition Black Pete (“Zwarte Piet”). Both of them have been teased and called Black Pete (Zwarte Piet). “I have a terrible history with Black Pete”, Abdirahman reflects before sharing a painful story of his father being called Black Pete by children in a busy mall while no one intervened to defend him. Stephanie: “Oh you don’t need paint”,children kept calling his father Black Pete at 5 minutes in a mall, people around him didn’t say anything. Stephanie, a ‘plus size’ model, shares her painful experiences as well:

“Besides the fact that is has the same image as Golliwog and blackface and stuff it is rooted in slavery. But also, people don’t understand why it really hurts, and it really hurts. When children see me walking down the street they will tell me I am Zwarte Piet, I am Black Pete. During the 5th of December when Sinterklaas takes place I think twice about wearing red lipstick because people will look at me and think about or even tell me I look like Black Pete. It needs to stop it really needs to stop.”


STOP BLACKFACE.COM

STROLLING SERIES SHOWS THE PAIN CAUSED BY BLACKFACE TRADITION BLACK PETE

''IT HURTS, AND IT REALLY NEEDS TO STOP''

http://stopblackface.com/strolling-series-shows-the-pain-caused-by-blackface-tradition-black-pere-it-hurts-and-it-really-needs-to-stop/



[20]
WIKIPEDIAQUINCY GARIO
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quinsy_Gario

''Whereas mainstream media kept a guarded silence that weekend, on internet a video was posted showing Gario first being dragged away by both uniformed and undercover police and then kept violently to the ground for several minutes, resisting and protesting ‘I didn’t do anything at all’.............''What makes the 2011 Dordrecht and Amsterdam incidents unique in the history of Zwarte Piet in the Netherlands is the actual intervention by the police, up to the level of violence, in suppressing opposing views''QUOTIDIANZWARTE PIET AND CULTURAL APHASIA IN THE NETHERLANDSJOHN HELSLOOT
http://www.quotidian.nl/www.quotidian.nl/cgi/t/text/text-idxdb87.html?c=quotidian;sid=2ebc50cc569f33c2b837e673aad092ed;view=text;idno=m0301a01;rgn=div1;node=m0301a01%3A3;cc=quotidian


YOUTUBE.COM
POLICE BRUTALITY IN THE NETHERLANDS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=endscreen&v=BSwHoFCq58Y
NLTIMES.NLPOLICE ARREST OF ZWARTE PIET PROTESTORS A MISTAKE: REPORT17 OCTOBER 2014
https://nltimes.nl/2014/10/17/police-arrest-zwarte-piet-protestors-mistake-report
[21]
UNDERLYING ARTICLE MISTAKENLY REFERSTO SINTERKLAAS [SAINT NICHOLAS] AS TO A ''CHRISTMAS CHARACTER'':BUT:
The American ''Father Christmas'' Santa Claus and the Dutch''Sinterklaas are two different Fairy Tale Figures, although Santa Clausis derived from the Medieval Dutch ''Sinterlklaas''So the Dutch Feast of ''Sinterklaaas'' [5 december]  is not Christmas Feast!

''The Dutch tend to argue that Black Pete is a Dutch thing, and other people outside the Netherlands don’t understand our culture,” says Mitchell Esajas, co-founder of New Urban Collective and Kick Out Zwarte Piet. ''
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC NEWSTHE NOTORIOUS CHRISTMASCHARACTER IS DIVIDING A COUNTRY6 DECEMBER 2018
https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/12/black-pete-christmas-zwarte-piet-dutch/

KICK OUT ZWARTE PIET/STOP BLACKFACE
STOP BLACKFACEABOUT US
http://stopblackface.com/about-us/

HUFFINGTON POSTJUST SAY NO TO BLACKFACE: NEO-MINSTRELSY ANDTHE POWER TO DEHUMANIZEDR DAVID J LEONARD8 DECEMBER 2012
https://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-david-j-leonard/just-say-no-to-blackface-_b_1752139.html



[22]

POLICE BRUTALITY AT GOUDA
YOUTUBE.COMJERRY AFFRYIE 2014 GOUDA ARREST DURING ANTIZWARTE PIET DEMONSTRATION

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y83orJ24a2w

YOUTUBE.COMGEWELDDADIGE ARRESTATIE JERRY AFRYIE TIJDENSPROTEST TEGEN ZWARTE PIET IN ROTTERDAM, 2016[TRANSLATED IN ENGLISH:VIOLENT ARREST OF JERRY AFRYIE DURING PROTESTAGAINST ZWARTE PIET UB ROTTERDAM, 2016
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0W1lXARD4Js&t=6s


[23]



NLTIMES.NLNEARLY 200 ANTI ZWARTE PIET PROTESTERS ARRESTED INROTTERDAM12 NOVEMBER 2016
https://nltimes.nl/2016/11/12/nearly-200-anti-zwarte-piet-protesters-arrested-rotterdam

YOUTUBE.COMGEWELDDADIGE ARRESTATIE JERRY AFRYIE TIJDENSPROTEST TEGEN ZWARTE PIET IN ROTTERDAM, 2016[TRANSLATED IN ENGLISH:VIOLENT ARREST OF JERRY AFRYIE DURING PROTESTAGAINST ZWARTE PIET UB ROTTERDAM, 2016
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0W1lXARD4Js&t=6s

[24]
NLTIMES.NLJERRY AFRIYIE

https://nltimes.nl/tags/jerry-afriyie



[25]

''Emotions were running so high that a popular singer, Anouk, who is white and had called for the abolition of Black Pete, received numerous insults and threats via social media. A plan for a Sinterklaas parade with a proposed compromise, Green Petes, had to be canceled after threats were made against its planners.''
THE NEW YORK TIMESWHY THE DUTCH LOVE BLACK PETEARNON GRUNBERG4 DECEMBER 2013
https://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/05/opinion/why-the-dutch-love-black-pete.html


DUTCH CHILDREN'S OMBUDSMAN RECEIVES BLACKPETE THREATS4 OCTOBER 2016
https://www.liberties.eu/en/short-news/14802/14802


TEXT

Dutch Children's Ombudsman Receives Black Pete Threats


The Dutch ombudsman for children, Margrite Kalverboer, has received dozens of angry reactions and threats after she stated in her report that Black Pete in its current form is in conflict with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Discussions with children showed that the image of Black Pete can be hurtful and can contribute to bullying. Children should not be negatively affected by the annual feast of St. Nicholas, therefore Black Pete should be altered, says the children's ombudsman. Ard van der Steur, the minister of justice, has condemned the threats.   

More:

https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2016/09/30/tientallen-bedreigingen-voor-kinderombudsman-om-zwarte-piet-a1524199  

HERE THE REPORT OF THE KINDEROMBUDSMAN:
IN DUTCH
''KINDEROMBUDSMAN: ZWARTE PIET VRAAGT OM AANPASSING''IN ENGLISH:''CHILDREN'S OMBUDSMAN: BLACK PETE DEMANDS ADAPTATION''
REPORT IN DUTCH:
https://www.dekinderombudsman.nl/ul/cms/fck-uploaded/20160930%20Standpunt%20over%20Zwarte%20Piet.pdf

UNDERLYING ARTICLE MISTAKENLY REFERSTO SINTERKLAAS [SAINT NICHOLAS] AS TO A ''CHRISTMAS CHARACTER'':BUT:
The American ''Father Christmas'' Santa Claus and the Dutch''Sinterklaas are two different Fairy Tale Figures, although Santa Clausis derived from the Medieval Dutch ''Sinterlklaas''So the Dutch Feast of ''Sinterklaaas'' [5 december]  is not Christmas Feast!
''These bans on Zwarte Piet have not come easily. As the movement against the character has grown, so too has organized white supremacy in favor of him. Journalists have received death threats for writing about Zwarte Piet and anti-blackface activists have survived violent attacks. This November, an article in the Dutch newspaper De Telegraaf accused Esajas of being funded by George Soros—a common anti-Semitic smear that often pops up in white supremacist conspiracy theories.''
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC.COMTHE NOTORIOUS CHRISTMAS CHARACTERIS DIVIDING A COUBNTRY6 DECEMBER 2018
https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/12/black-pete-christmas-zwarte-piet-dutch/

[26]

''The images of a black Dutch TV presenter's face super-imposed on the hanged bodies of victims of a lynching are too nauseating to look at. And yet a video featuring the mocked-up pictures has been widely circulated online here.............''But it was her criticism of the traditional festive character known as Black Pete that unleashed a backlash of death-threats and misogynistic, racist abuse, which quickly escalated from unpleasant to outright shocking.''
BBC,COM NEWSDUTCH RACE HATE ENGULFS PRESENTER SYLVANA SIMONS25 NOVEMBER 2016
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-38089469
UNDERLYING ARTICLE MISTAKENLY REFERSTO SINTERKLAAS [SAINT NICHOLAS] AS TO A ''CHRISTMAS CHARACTER'':BUT:
The American ''Father Christmas'' Santa Claus and the Dutch''Sinterklaas are two different Fairy Tale Figures, although Santa Clausis derived from the Medieval Dutch ''Sinterlklaas''So the Dutch Feast of ''Sinterklaaas'' [5 december]  is not Christmas Feast!
''These bans on Zwarte Piet have not come easily. As the movement against the character has grown, so too has organized white supremacy in favor of him. Journalists have received death threats for writing about Zwarte Piet and anti-blackface activists have survived violent attacks. This November, an article in the Dutch newspaper De Telegraaf accused Esajas of being funded by George Soros—a common anti-Semitic smear that often pops up in white supremacist conspiracy theories.''
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC.COMTHE NOTORIOUS CHRISTMAS CHARACTERIS DIVIDING A COUBNTRY6 DECEMBER 2018
https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/12/black-pete-christmas-zwarte-piet-dutch/

[27]

'"They would call me Zwarte Piet, or you are dirty just like Zwarte Piet. You are only good to be Zwarte Piet."

Until then, he thought the Sinterklaas festivities were just about fun and collecting sweets.

"I was a child and not politically aware, but I realized we played this dress up with this character who is dumb, who is silly, who doesn't know much, who needs someone to lead the way, who keeps messing up, who is looking very ugly, and then realising that I am the butt of the joke, I was 12 years old when I realised it.''


AL JAZEERA

ZWARTE PIET: BLACK PETE IS DUTCH RACISM

IN FULL DISPLAY

27 NOVEMBER 2018

https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/zwarte-piet-black-pete-dutch-racism-full-display-181127153936872.html



STOP BLACKFACE.COM

STROLLING SERIES SHOWS THE PAIN CAUSED BY BLACKFACE TRADITION BLACK PETE

''IT HURTS, AND IT REALLY NEEDS TO STOP''

http://stopblackface.com/strolling-series-shows-the-pain-caused-by-blackface-tradition-black-pere-it-hurts-and-it-really-needs-to-stop/


[28]


THE GUARDIANBLACK PETE IS JUST A BIT OF FUN FOR THE NETHERLANDS, RIGHT?WRONGSAMIRA BIN SHARIFU19 AUGUST 2014
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/aug/19/black-pete-netherlands-dutch-stereotypes-black-people-blacked-up-christmas

"They would call me Zwarte Piet, or you are dirty just like Zwarte Piet. You are only good to be Zwarte Piet."

Until then, he thought the Sinterklaas festivities were just about fun and collecting sweets.

"I was a child and not politically aware, but I realized we played this dress up with this character who is dumb, who is silly, who doesn't know much, who needs someone to lead the way, who keeps messing up, who is looking very ugly, and then realising that I am the butt of the joke, I was 12 years old when I realised it.''


AL JAZEERA

ZWARTE PIET: BLACK PETE IS DUTCH RACISM

IN FULL DISPLAY

27 NOVEMBER 2018

https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/zwarte-piet-black-pete-dutch-racism-full-display-181127153936872.html



STOP BLACKFACE.COM

STROLLING SERIES SHOWS THE PAIN CAUSED BY BLACKFACE TRADITION BLACK PETE

''IT HURTS, AND IT REALLY NEEDS TO STOP''

http://stopblackface.com/strolling-series-shows-the-pain-caused-by-blackface-tradition-black-pere-it-hurts-and-it-really-needs-to-stop/





[29]

THE REPORT OF THE KINDEROMBUDSMAN:
IN DUTCH
''KINDEROMBUDSMAN: ZWARTE PIET VRAAGT OM AANPASSING''IN ENGLISH:''CHILDREN'S OMBUDSMAN: BLACK PETE DEMANDS ADAPTATION''
REPORT IN DUTCH:
https://www.dekinderombudsman.nl/ul/cms/fck-uploaded/20160930%20Standpunt%20over%20Zwarte%20Piet.pdf

''One of the go-to arguments of the pro-Black Pete side is that quarrelling about it ends up spoiling the entire celebration for children. But if this were really about the children, surely the Black Pete supporters would have paid more attention to a report published two years ago by the children’s ombudsman. It clearly states that many children of colour find the Black Pete season very troubling: during those weeks they’re more often confronted with racial slurs, usually by other children who call them Black Pete and poke fun at them.''

THE GUARDIANBLACK PETE: THE SCANDAL WE DUTCH CAN'T BE SILENT ANYMORE14 NOVEMBER 2018
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/nov/14/black-pete-scandal-dutch-silent-sinterklaas

DUTCH CHILDREN'S OMBUDSMAN RECEIVES BLACKPETE THREATS4 OCTOBER 2016
https://www.liberties.eu/en/short-news/14802/14802


TEXT

Dutch Children's Ombudsman Receives Black Pete Threats


The Dutch ombudsman for children, Margrite Kalverboer, has received dozens of angry reactions and threats after she stated in her report that Black Pete in its current form is in conflict with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Discussions with children showed that the image of Black Pete can be hurtful and can contribute to bullying. Children should not be negatively affected by the annual feast of St. Nicholas, therefore Black Pete should be altered, says the children's ombudsman. Ard van der Steur, the minister of justice, has condemned the threats. 

[30]
NLTIMES.NLPRO ZWARTE PIET ACTIVISTS SENTENCED TO COMMUNITY SERVICE FOR HIGHWAY BLOCKADE9 NOVEMBER 2018
https://nltimes.nl/2018/11/09/pro-zwarte-piet-activists-sentenced-community-service-highway-blockade


DUTCHNEWS.NLPRO-PIET ROAD BLOCKERS AWAIT PUBLIC PROSECUTOR'S SENTENCING DEMANDS12 OCTOBER 2018
https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2018/10/pro-piet-road-blockers-await-public-prosecutors-sentencing-demands/

NLTIMES.NLPOLICE IGNORED ANTI-ZWARTE PIET PROTESTERS DURING HIGHWAYBLOCKADE, ACTIVIST SAYS12 OCTOBER 2018https://nltimes.nl/2018/10/12/police-ignored-anti-zwarte-piet-protesters-highway-blockade-activist-says





[31]


''Primary schools in Utrecht, The Hague, and some in Amsterdam announced in that in 2015 Zwarte Piet would no longer be welcome at their school celebrations. They do not want children to be upset or offended. Schools would decide individually what sort of festivities they would have. In The Hague it was specified that Piet would lose his red lips, curly hair, earrings, black skin, and not appear as a servant. ''

STNICOLASCENTER.ORGWHO IS (ZWARTE) PIET? A CONTINUING EVOLUTIONCHANGE BECOME MORE WIDESPREAD
https://www.stnicholascenter.org/pages/piet-change/
DUTCHNEWS.NLUTRECHT PRIMARY SCHOOKLS DUMP ZWARTE PIET30 SEPTEMBER 2015
https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2015/09/utrecht-primary-schools-dump-zwarte-piet/

DUTCHNEWS.NLCLASSIC ZWARTE PIET IS OUT IN THE HAGUE PRIMARY SCHOOLS:AD17 SEPTEMBER 2015
https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2015/09/classic-zwarte-piet-is-out-in-the-hague-primary-schools-ad/



[32]

''Venerable high-end Amsterdam department store de Bijenkorf annually decorates for the season with spectacular Piets climbing in the large open space extending the full height of the multiple-level store. 2015 saw, for the first time, golden Piets taking the place of traditional blackface ones in the flagship store on the Dam. The golden Piets will be extended to seven more stores in 2016. ''

STNICOLASCENTER.ORG
WHO IS (ZWARTE) PIET? A CONTINUING EVOLUTIONCHANGE BECOME MORE WIDESPREAD
https://www.stnicholascenter.org/pages/piet-change/


[33]



''The grocery chain Lidl is the only one of the major five reported to have completely eliminated images deemed racial caricatures. They will have coloring pictures that children may color as they choose.''

STNICOLASCENTER.ORG
WHO IS (ZWARTE) PIET? A CONTINUING EVOLUTIONCHANGE BECOME MORE WIDESPREAD
https://www.stnicholascenter.org/pages/piet-change/



[34]

'' Thus the areas of North and South Holland and Utrecht have seen the most change, while Drenthe, Friesland, and Zeeland, the least. ''


STNICOLASCENTER.ORG
WHO IS (ZWARTE) PIET? A CONTINUING EVOLUTIONCHANGE BECOME MORE WIDESPREAD
https://www.stnicholascenter.org/pages/piet-change/



[34]

STNICOLASCENTER.ORG
WHO IS (ZWARTE) PIET? A CONTINUING EVOLUTIONCHANGE BECOME MORE WIDESPREAD
https://www.stnicholascenter.org/pages/piet-change/


THE REPORT OF THE KINDEROMBUDSMAN:
IN DUTCH
''KINDEROMBUDSMAN: ZWARTE PIET VRAAGT OM AANPASSING''IN ENGLISH:''CHILDREN'S OMBUDSMAN: BLACK PETE DEMANDS ADAPTATION''
:
https://www.dekinderombudsman.nl/ul/cms/fck-uploaded/20160930%20Standpunt%20over%20Zwarte%20Piet.pdf


[36]
DUTCH CHILDREN'S OMBUDSMAN RECEIVES BLACKPETE THREATS4 OCTOBER 2016
https://www.liberties.eu/en/short-news/14802/14802


TEXT

Dutch Children's Ombudsman Receives Black Pete Threats


The Dutch ombudsman for children, Margrite Kalverboer, has received dozens of angry reactions and threats after she stated in her report that Black Pete in its current form is in conflict with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Discussions with children showed that the image of Black Pete can be hurtful and can contribute to bullying. Children should not be negatively affected by the annual feast of St. Nicholas, therefore Black Pete should be altered, says the children's ombudsman. Ard van der Steur, the minister of justice, has condemned the threats. 

[37]

THE NEW YORK TIMESUN URGES THE NETHERLANDS TO STOP PORTRAYALS OF''BLACK PETE'' CHARACTER28 AUGUST 2015
https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/29/world/europe/zwarte-piet-netherlands-united-nations.html


TEXT

UNITED NATIONS — A United Nations committee has urged the Netherlands to get rid of Black Pete, a popular children’s character who has long been portrayed in early winter by white people in blackface makeup, usually with exaggerated red lips and gold hoops in his ears.

The United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination wrote in a report issued Friday that “the character of Black Pete is sometimes portrayed in a manner that reflects negative stereotypes of people of African descent and is experienced by many people of African descent as a vestige of slavery.” It urged the Netherlands to “actively promote the elimination” of the racial stereotyping.

The Dutch government responded by dismissing the idea of banning the character, but said it would promote a discussion, however “uncomfortable,” about racism.

The Dutch are already reinventing the way they portray the controversial character, said Lodewijk Asscher, minister for social affairs and employment. “At the school of my own children, the Petes last year were orange,” he said.


The figure of Black Pete — Zwarte Piet, in Dutch — accompanies St. Nicholas in early December. In parades in nearly every city and village, St. Nicholas — almost always a white man in a red suit — arrives on horseback, while Pete, his servant, walks alongside distributing candy.

Black Pete is fodder in a pitched culture war within Dutch society, with antiracism activists denouncing the racial stereotypes and others insisting that the figure represents a harmless tradition, according to which Pete’s skin is darkened by soot from sliding down chimneys with gifts.

Mr. Asscher spoke carefully, saying he understood the hurt feelings on both sides, including those who “fear they are losing their tradition.”

“We must realize that changing an old tradition takes time,” the minister said.

Social media users engaged in a debate more unruly than uncomfortable in response to the United Nations report. On Twitter, critics called the tradition a “disgrace.” Others described the United Nations report as an example of “racism against the Dutch.”

The emotional debate around this one character is part of a broader argument about the limits of multiculturalism in Dutch society.


[38]


COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION OF

RACIAL DISCRIMINATION'

CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS ON THE

NINETEENTH TO TWENTY FIRST PERIODIC

REPORTS OF THE NETHERLANDS

25 AUGUST 2015


https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CERD/Shared%20Documents/NLD/CERD_C_NLD_CO_19-21_21519_E.pdf


PASSAGE ABOUT BLACK PETE



  17. While the Committee understands that the tradition of Sinterklaas and Black Pete is enjoyed by many persons in Dutch society, the Committee notes with concern that the character of Black Pete is sometimes portrayed in a manner that reflects negative stereotypes of people of African descent and is experienced by many people of African descent as a vestige of slavery, which is injurious to the dignity and self-esteem of children and adults of African descent. The Committee is concerned about the discriminatory effect of such portrayals, which may convey a conception at odds with the Convention. The Committee is furthermore concerned at reports that citizens seeking to peacefully protest against such portrayals have been denied authorization to conduct such protests at a meaningful time and place and have been subjected to violent attacks and other forms of intimidation, which have not been adequately investigated. (arts. 2, 5 and 7). 18. Considering that even a deeply-rooted cultural tradition does not justify discriminatory practices and stereotypes, the Committee recommends that the State party actively promote the elimination of those features of the character of Black Pete which reflect negative stereotypes and are experienced by many people of African descent as a vestige of slavery. The Committee recommends that the State party find a reasonable balance, such as a different portrayal of Black Pete and ensure respect of human dignity and human rights of all inhabitants of the State party. The Committee further recommends that the State party ensure non-discrimination in the enjoyment of freedom of expression and association, and that attacks on protesters be effectively investigated and duly prosecuted. 


https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CERD/Shared%20Documents/NLD/CERD_C_NLD_CO_19-21_21519_E.pdf '



[39]
LETTER OF UN OFFICIAL VERENE SHEPHARD [AND OTHERS]TO THE DUTCH GOVERNMENT
  The character and image of Black Pete perpetuate a stereotyped image of African people and people of African descent as second-class citizens, fostering an underlying sense of inferiority within Dutch society and stirring racial differences as well as racism. During the celebration, numerous people playing the Black Pete figure blacken their faces, wear bright red lipstick as well as afro wigs. The Black Pete figure is to act as a fool and as a servant of Santa Claus. The Black Pete segment of Santa Claus celebrations is experienced by African people and people of African descent as a living trace of past slavery and oppression, tracing back to the country’s past involvement in the trade of African slaves in the previous centuries. Reportedly, a growing opposition to the racial profiling of Black Pete within the Dutch society, including by people of non-African origins, is to be noticed. However, it is also alleged that no response has been given to associations defending the rights of African people and people of African descent in the Netherlands, which are asking for dialogue on this issue. 
UNITED NATIONSOFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGHCOMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
MANDATES OF THE CHAIR RAPPORTEUR OF THE WORKING GROUPON PEOPLE OF AFRICAN DESCENT: THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE FIELD OF CULTURAL RIGHTS: THE INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON MINORITY ISSUES: AND THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON CONTEMPORARY FORMSOF RACISM, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, XENOPHOBIA AND RELATEDINTOLERANCE

https://spdb.ohchr.org/hrdb/23rd/public_-_AL_Netherlands_17.01.13_(1.2013).pdf  





[40]
THE TELEGRAPH ARTICLE [IN DUTCH]''HET GEVAAR VAN EEN RADICALE AGENDA''[IN ENGLISH]''THE DANGER OF A RADICAL AGENDA''
https://pbs.twimg.com/media/Dr3879aXgAAr4io.jpg



[41]

THE TELEGRAPH ARTICLE [IN DUTCH]''HET GEVAAR VAN EEN RADICALE AGENDA''[IN ENGLISH]''THE DANGER OF A RADICAL AGENDA''
WATCH THE SINISTER PHOTO OF THE TWOLEADERS OF KICK OUT ZWARTE PIET, MITCHELLESAJAS AND JERRY AFRIYIE, LOOKING DOWNON THE PEACEFUL NETHERLANDS WITH THE MILLS....SEE ALSO THE PHOTO'S AT MY ARTICLE
https://pbs.twimg.com/media/Dr3879aXgAAr4io.jpg


[42]
SEE THE ANTISEMITIC ARTICLE AT THE TELEGRAPH FROM1942
https://pbs.twimg.com/media/Dr6R29_X4AMcV1s.jpg:large

A PASSAGE[FIRST IN DUTCH]
''Jood is en blijft Duitsland's vijand, of hij nu uit

Portugal, of kersvers uit Jeruzalem, al dan niet voorzien

van een Nederlandse pas of identiteiotskaart, hier verzeild is geraakt''


TRANSLATED IN ENGLISH:


''Jew is and remains the enemy of Germany, whether he

set foot in the Netherlands, coming from Portugal, or

newly arrived from Jerusalem, whether or not

in the possession of a Dutch passport or identity card.''


SEE THE ARTICLE
https://pbs.twimg.com/media/Dr6R29_X4AMcV1s.jpg:large


43]

''This year, Sinterklaas' arrival on November 17 was greeted by protests against Black Pete in 18 cities across the Netherlands. Around 40 people were arrested, primarily counterprotesters supporting Zwarte Piet, who attacked anti-racist demonstrators with eggs and bananas, and in some places, Hitler salutes.''

AL JAZEERAZWARTE PIET: BLACK PETE IS ''DUTCH RACISM IN FULL DISPLAY''27 NOVEMBER 2018
https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/zwarte-piet-black-pete-dutch-racism-full-display-181127153936872.html  


''Supporters of Black Pete attacked several protesters in Rotterdam, where activists had hung a banner reading “Black Pete is Racism” from the city’s Erasmus Bridge...........''Football supporters in Eindhoven threw eggs and beer cans at police and anti-Pete protesters.''
REUTERSFESTIVE FUN OR RACISM? DUTCH ''BLACK PETE'' ROW GETS VIOLENT18 NOVEMBER 2018
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-netherlands-black-pete/festive-fun-or-racism-dutch-black-pete-row-gets-violent-idUSKCN1NN0LH 


[44]

''In Eindhoven and Rotterdam, the counterprotests in support of Black Pete were particularly intense, with reports that extreme right-wing supporters had dressed up as Zwarte Piet, and handed out candy and right-wing political party stickers to children............''Jerry Afriyie, along with Quinsy Gario, was one of the two founders of the Zwarte Piet is Racisme campaign in 2011.

He said: "There were bananas thrown at us. There were eggs thrown at us. We were called all types of racists slurs. We were threatened by these people, very aggressively. They even did the Hitler sign, and in some places white power signs. It was a like a weekend of Dutch racism in full display, and people saw it''


AL JAZEERAZWARTE PIET: BLACK PETE IS ''DUTCH RACISM IN FULL DISPLAY''27 NOVEMBER 2018
https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/zwarte-piet-black-pete-dutch-racism-full-display-181127153936872.html

[45]




''Football supporters in Eindhoven threw eggs and beer cans at police and anti-Pete protesters. Anti-Pete demonstrations in Nijmegen and Zwolle were canceled after mayors said they could not guarantee protesters’ safety.''
REUTERSFESTIVE FUN OR RACISM? DUTCH BLACK PETE ROW GETS VIOLENT18 NOVEMBER 2018
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-netherlands-black-pete/festive-fun-or-racism-dutch-black-pete-row-gets-violent-idUSKCN1NN0LH


[46]

''A group of 40 pro-Pete demonstrators were detained in Tilburg on Sunday as police said they were out looking for a fight''
REUTERSFESTIVE FUN OR RACISM? DUTCH BLACK PETE ROW GETS VIOLENT18 NOVEMBER 2018
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-netherlands-black-pete/festive-fun-or-racism-dutch-black-pete-row-gets-violent-idUSKCN1NN0LH

[47]
WIKIPEDIAPARTY FOR FREEDOM
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Party_for_Freedom

DUTCH ELECTIONS 2017/PVV IN POWER ORNOT/TERROR REIGN OR FREEDOMASTRID ESSED14 MARCH 2017
https://www.astridessed.nl/dutch-elections-2017pvv-in-power-or-notterror-reign-or-freedom/


WIKIPEDIA
FORUM FOR DEMOCRACY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forum_for_Democracy_(Netherlands)


[48]
'' Prime minister Mark Rutte has described the angry mobs who attacked people demonstrating against the blackface Zwarte Piet tradition at this year’s Sinterklaas processions as ‘asos’ or anti-socials, but failed to explicitly condemn the violence. ‘It is a serious matter because everyone has the right to protest, it has to be possible,’ Rutte told reporters in The Hague. ‘We can’t let anti-social elements stop that.’ Rutte went on to downplay the problems, pointing out that the main procession in Zaandijk, had gone off well. ‘So you see, it can be done,’ the prime minister said. ‘But in a couple of places there were problems because football hooligans were waiting to cause trouble.’

DUITCHNEWS.NLPRO-PIET ACTIVISTS ARE ''ASOS'', SAYS PRIMEMINISTER AFTER SINTERKLAAS VIOLENCE19 NOVEMBER 2018
https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2018/11/pro-piet-activists-are-asos-says-prime-minister-after-sinterklaas-violence/


[49]



''Many people in the Netherlands support Black Pete, and a majority of the country seems resistant to changing the tradition.''

AL JAZEERA

ZWARTE PIET: BLACK PETE IS DUTCH RACISM

IN FULL DISPLAY

27 NOVEMBER 2018

https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/zwarte-piet-black-pete-dutch-racism-full-display-181127153936872.html



[50]
WIKIPEDIAFIFTH COLUMN
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fifth_column