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King Henry IV was NOT the son of Katherine Swynford!/My comments on ''Richard II, the last of the Plantagenets?''

vrijdag 26 januari 2018
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KING HENRY IV WAS NOT THE SON OF KATHERINE SWYNFORD!/MY COMMENTS
ON ''RICHARD II KING 1377-99, THE LAST OF THE PLANTAGENETS?''

SEE ALSO


https://www.astridessed.nl/king-henry-iv-was-not-the-son-of-katherine-swynford-my-comments-on-richard-ii-the-last-of-the-plantagenets/



Dear Readers,
Here is your supplier of Medieval history, againHAHAHA
https://www.astridessed.nl/tag/history/

ABOUT RICHARD II AND THE LINE OF SUCCESSIONTO THE ENGLISH THRONE
This time a short, but interesting travel to the times ofking Richard II [1], son of the famous Black Prince [2]and grandson of king Edward III.As you'll know, king Richard II was deposed and usurped in 1399 by his cousin,Henry of Bolingbroke, who became king Henry IV of England. [3]Richard II died tragically at Pontefract, supposedly starved to death.[4]BrrrrrrrrTragic in itself, it was an usurpation, because it broke the rightfulline of succession, resulting in the later Wars of the Roses,the strugglefor the English throne between the two branches of the Plantagenet House,The House of Lancaster and the House of York. [5]Because what happened:Yet apart from the fact, that it WAS usurpation, because the rightfulking was deposed, but besides that,Henry of Bolingbroke was not even heir presumptive [6] [the nextin line of succession when the king died childless]
He was the son of the THIRD son of his and Richard II's grandfather,king Edward III, John of Gaunt, [7] while there were stilldescendants from the SECOND son of king Edward III, Lionelof Antwerp [8], namely Edmund Mortimer, greatgrandson ofLionel of Antwerp [Edmund's father was Roger Mortimer, NOTthe famous or notorious one, ally and supposedlylover of Isabella of France [9], but a descendant]Roger Mortimer's mother,Philippa Plantagenet had been Lionelof Antwerp's daughter] [10]And although the descendants of Lionel of Antwerp descended ofhis daughter Philippa Plantagenet [11] [he had no son], thatwas no problem at all, since there were no Salic Laws [onlysuccession from the male line] [12] in England. [13]Anyway, the descendants of the second son of king Edward III wereovertaken, which lead to the wars of the Roses, with as theleader of the House of York, Richard, 3rd Duke of York [14], nephewof Edmund Mortimer from his mother's side, Edmund, whodied childless,was the brother of his mother, Anne Mortimer] and the Houseof Lancaster.Read in note 15 about the Wars of the Roses. 

But I digress
INTRUIGING HISTORY AND THEIR IMPORTANT ERROR:
I recently read a great book about king Richard II.From Jean Plaidy ''Passage to Pontefract''A fantastic historical novel [I am a real fan ofJean Plaidy, read nearly all her books aboutEnglish and French history, she mixes history andromantic fiction brilliantly], which describesconvincingly his life, his love for his Queens [16],his devotion to his favourite, Robert de Vere, Dukeof Ireland and 9th Earl of Oxford [17], his constantwrong choices, leading him to his tragicend.I also look forward reading the historical nonfiction book of the excellent historian Kathryn Warner:''Richard II: A true King's Fall''.
ANYWAY:Searching the Internet about information aboutking Richard II, I discovered several website, among elsea site named ''Intruiging History''They had posted an article with the rather bizarre title[since according to me, the Plantagenets ruled until 1485] ''''RICHARD II KING 1377-1399, THE LAST OF THE PLANTAGENETS?'' [18]Again, a rather bizarre, but interesting title and I did not yet have the opportunity to convincemyself of the historical accuracy, at least as far as my knowledge reaches.
But one sentence stroke my attention in particular and I for sure knew that this atleast was not right at all:
I quote
''1399 Henry IV,King of England, Usurper of Richard II, Henry Bolingbroke, grandson of Edward III by John of Gaunt and his wife Katherine Swynsford (former mistress, subsequently legitimised by marriage and royal assent) but could be disputed, is now King of England.'' [19]
FROM:
INTRUIGING HISTORY.COMRICHARD II KING 1377-1399, THE LAST OF THE PLANTAGENETS

http://www.intriguing-history.com/richard-ii-1377-1399-plantagenet/

Honestly said:
Henry of Bolingbroke, being the son of John of Gaunt and his mistress,Katherine Swynford, is a pretty elementary and stupid mistake:You don't have to be a great historian to know that and any seriousWikipedia or other source can help you out here.
Here is the thing:


Henry of Bolingbroke, cousin of Richard II and later king Henry IV,was the son of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster.NOT Katherine Swynford.
It is true, that she was John of Gaunt's great love and lifelong mistressand came in his household as a governess of his children. [20]During his marriage with Constance of Castile [21], daughter ofPeter the Cruel [22], he and Katherine Swynford had an affair  and got several children.They were later legitimated as the Beauforts [Margaret Beaufort,the mother of Henry Tudor, the later king Henry VII [23], was their greatgranddaughter][24], who played a major role in the wars of the Roses. [25]
So the Beauforts were the halfbrothers and sisters of Henry Bolingbroke.


ABOUT THE ANCESTRY OF HENRY OF BOLINGBROKE

Henry of Bolingbroke was the Duke of Lancaster as his father, John ofGaunt.Yet this title and lands don't have their origins in his father, butin his mother.As I said, she was Blanche of Lancaster, the daughter of Henry of Grosmont,the 1st Duke of Lancaster. [26]Blanche's father was the son of Earl Henry, the 3rd Earl of Lancaster,who on his turn was the son of Edmund Crouchback, who was the1st Earl of Lancaster [and son of King Henry III andbrother of king Edward I, the Hammer of the Scots] [27]
The second Earl of Lancaster was the brother of Earl Henry,Thomas of Lancaster, who inheritedthe title and lands from his father, Edmund Crouchback:I wrote about him in an extended book/article.Thomas was executed after his rebellion against hiscousin, king Edward II. [28]Later Thomas' brother Earl Henry inherited the lands of his brother[that were firstly forfeited because he was executedas a ''traitor'' to King Edward II] and became the 3rd Earlof Lancaster.His son Henry of Grosmont [Blanche of Lancaster's father] had been made Duke of Lancaster by king Edward III. [29]
When Blanche was married to John of Gaunt, he controlled her landsiure uxoris [by the right of his wife] [30], as was usual in those times,but she remained owner of the lands.
After the death of his father, John of Gaunt, Henry of Bolingbrokeeventually inherited the lands and title, that came from his mother,Blanche of Lancaster [initially Richard II disinherited Henry ofBolingbroke, whom he had exiled earlier and that inheritance was oneof the reasons why Bolingbroke rose against Richard II, deposing him][31]
ANYWAY, from a historical site one may expect, that they don't make such a mistake.Wonder whether the rest of their information is truly correct.Maybe I write about that yet.
But you know what is funny and more stupid?I wrote Intruiging History about their mistake, Henry ofBolingbroke [later king Henry IV] being the son of KatherineSwynford instead of his real mother, Blanche of Lancaster anduntill now [26 january 2018 at least], they did not restorethe mistake.
I post my reaction to Intruiging History below, before the notes.
Well, I hope you have enjoyed my rather short travel to the past.More will come, soon enough.
Thank you for joining me.You were nice companions!

Astrid Essed

MY REACTION TO INTRUIGING HISTORY:

MY REACTION TO INTRUIGING HISTORY.COM

INTRUIGING HISTORY.COMRICHARD II KING 1377-1399, THE LAST OF THE]PLANTAGENETS?

http://www.intriguing-history.com/richard-ii-1377-1399-plantagenet/


Dear Management of ''Intruiging History.com''

I just read your page about the English king Richard IIwith great interest.

Richard II King 1377-1399, the last of the Plantagenets?


http://www.intriguing-history. com/richard-ii-1377-1399- plantagenet/


MY INTRODUCTION:
Being a historian myself [although not specialized in Medievalhistory] I take great interest in Medieval history and I've published somearticles on my website, especially about the Wars of the Roses and14th century English history
See on my website [Search function]
www.astridessed.nl
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OFKING EDWARD II/FROM WARLORD TO SAINT


About the wars of the RosesSee among else

USURPATION AND THE RIGHT TO THE THRONE THROUGHFEMALES


CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES/TRAVEL TO THE PAST





MY COMMENTS ON YOUR ARTICLE:
Now to refer to your article about king Richard II
You wrote
''1399 Henry IV,King of England, Usurper of Richard II, Henry Bolingbroke, grandson of Edward III by John of Gaunt and his wife Katherine Swynsford (former mistress, subsequently legitimised by marriage and royal assent) but could be disputed, is now King of England.''
Your historical information is correct, except from one fact.Henry Bolingbroke [the later king Henry IV] is the sonof John of Gaunt, but NOT of Katherine Swynford.Bolingbroke's mother was Blanche of Lancaster,daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster.Through Bolingbroke's mother Blanche, Bolingbroke was the greatgrandson of Earl Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster[I described Earl Henry's brother, Thomas of Lancaster,
see my first link] and the great great grandson ofEdmund Crouchback [Earl Henry and Earl Thomas'father]
And Edmund Crouchback was the son of king Henry IIIand the first Earl of Lancaster [given in possessionby his father]He was also the brother of king Edward I
Although Bolingbroke's father John of Gaunt wasDuke of Lancaster, he held that title ure uxoris,as you'll know.
So Henry of Bolingbroke's Lancastrian inheritancecame through his mother Blanche, nothis father John of Gaunt.
KATHERINE SWYNFORD
Katherine Swynford was, as you know, the life longmistress and great love of John of Gaunt and came intohis household as governess to his children.After the death of John of Gaunt's second wife
Constance of Castile, he finally married Katherine.
You know of course, that the Baeufort family, who playedsuch a great part in the wars of the Roses, was descendedfrom the children of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford,who were legitimized as ''Beauforts'', first by Richard IIand later by their halfbrother king Henry IV [Henry Bolingbroke],under condition that they would not claijm the throne,but of course they did....
HAHAHAHA


Perhaps I have some more remarks about yourarticle, but I save that for another time!

Kind greetingsAstrid EssedAmsterdamThe Netherlands


NOTES

[1]

WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Richard_II_of_England


[2]

WIKIPEDIAEDWARD THE BLACK PRINCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_the_Black_Prince


[3]

WIKIPEDIAHENRY IV OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_IV_of_England

[4]

''He is thought to have starved to death in captivity on or around 14 February 1400, although there is some question over the date and manner of his death''
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW AND DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Richard_II_of_England#Overthro w_and_death


ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIARICHARD II OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Richard_II_of_England


[5]


THE WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS OFTHE ROSES/A TRAVEL TO THE PASTASTRID ESSED3 FEBRUARY 2015

https://www.astridessed.nl/the -wars-of-the-rosescauses-of-th e-wars-of-the-rosesa-travel-to -the-past/


SEE ALSO

http://community.dewereldmorge n.be/blog/astridessed/2018/01/ 25/the-wars-of-the-rosescauses -of-the-wars-of-the-rosestrave l-to-the-past



YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=d2QgaRbIjzQ&t=318s

[6]

WIKIPEDIAHEIR PRESUMPTIVE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Heir_presumptive



[7]

IN THE UNDERLYING WIKIPEDIA, THE TITLE OFJOHN OF GAUNT ''1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER'',IS NOT RIGHT:THE FIRST DUKE OF LANCASTER WAS JOHN OF GAUNT''SFATHER IN LAW, HENRY OF GROSMONT AND THE TITLEWAS GRANTED TO HIM BY KING EDWARD III

WIKIPEDIAJOHN OF GAUNT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_of_Gaunt

SEE
'' A few years later, in 1351, Edward bestowed an even greater honour on Lancaster when he created him Duke of Lancaster.''
HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER/DUKE OFLANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_of_Grosmont,_1st_Duke_of _Lancaster#Duke_of_Lancaster


ORIGINAL SOURCE
HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_of_Grosmont,_1st_Duke_of _Lancaster



[8]
WIKIPEDIALIONEL OF ANTWERP, 1ST DUKE OF CLARENCE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Lionel_of_Antwerp,_1st_Duke_of _Clarence



[9]

THIS WAS THE FATHER OF EDMUND MORTIMERROGER MORTIMER, GRANDSON OF LIONEL OFANTWERP AND SON OF LIONEL'SDAUGHTER PHILIPPA PLANTAGENET HE ALSO WAS RICHARD II'S HEIR PRESUMPTIVE UNTILHIS DAETH IN 1398
WIKIPEDIAROGER MORTIMER, 4TH EARL OF MARCH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_4th_Earl_of_Ma rch


AND HERE THE FAMOUS OR NOTORIOUS ROGER MORTIMER,THE 1ST EARL OF MARCH, THE GREAT GREAT GRANDFATHER OF'ROGER MORTIMER [ABOVE] AND SUPPOSEDLY LOVEROF QUEEN ISABELLA OF FRANCE, WIFE OF KING EDWARD II ANDMOTHER OF KING EDWARD III

WIKIPEDIAROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roger_Mortimer,_1st_Earl_of_Ma rch



[10]

WIKIPEDIAPHILIPPA OF CLARENCE, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Philippa,_5th_Countess_of_Ulst er


[11]


WIKIPEDIAPHILIPPA OF CLARENCE, 5TH COUNTESS OF ULSTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Philippa,_5th_Countess_of_Ulst er





[12]

WIKIPEDIASALIC LAW

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Salic_law



[13]

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/LANCASTER AND YORKUSURPATION AND THE RIGHT THROUGH THE THRONETHROUGH FEMALESASTRID ESSED17 FEBRUARY 2015

https://www.astridessed.nl/the -wars-of-the-roseslancaster-an d-yorkusurpation-and-the-right -to-the-throne-through-females -2/


[14]

WIKIPEDIARICHARD OF YORK, 3RD DUKE OF YORK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_Y ork


THE WARS OF THE ROSES/RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK/THECLAIMS TO THE THRONE OF LANCASTER AND YORKASTRID ESSED22 JANUARY 2015

https://www.astridessed.nl/the -wars-of-the-rosesrichard-duke -of-yorkthe-claims-to-the-thro ne-of-lancaster-and-york/



[15]

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS OFTHE ROSES/A TRAVEL TO THE PASTASTRID ESSED3 FEBRUARY 2015

https://www.astridessed.nl/the -wars-of-the-rosescauses-of-th e-wars-of-the-rosesa-travel-to -the-past/


SEE ALSO

http://community.dewereldmorge n.be/blog/astridessed/2018/01/ 25/the-wars-of-the-rosescauses -of-the-wars-of-the-rosestrave l-to-the-past



YOUTUBE.COMTHE CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=d2QgaRbIjzQ&t=318s


[16]

''Anne and Richard were only 14 years old when they first met and married. Yet these "two wispy teenagers " soon fell into a loving relationship and "over the years the king proved truly devoted to his new wife.''
WIKIPEDIAANNE OF BOHEMIA/QUEEN OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Anne_of_Bohemia#Queen_of_Engla nd


ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIAANNE OF BOHEMIA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Anne_of_Bohemia


[17]


''He died in or near Louvain in 1392. Three years later, on the anniversary of his death, 22 November 1395, Richard II had his embalmed body brought back to England for burial. It was recorded by the chronicler Thomas Walsingham that many magnates did not attend the re-burial ceremony because they 'had not yet digested their hatred' of him. The king had the coffin opened to kiss his lost friend's hand and to gaze on his face one last time''
ROBERT DE VERE, DUKE OF IRELAND/DEATH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Robert_de_Vere,_Duke_of_Irelan d#Death


ORIGINAL SOURCE
ROBERT DE VERE, DUKE OF IRELAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Robert_de_Vere,_Duke_of_Irelan d



[18]



INTRUIGING HISTORY.COMRICHARD II KING 1377-1399, THE LAST OF THE]PLANTAGENETS?

http://www.intriguing-history. com/richard-ii-1377-1399-plant agenet/


[19]


INTRUIGING HISTORY.COMRICHARD II KING 1377-1399, THE LAST OF THE]PLANTAGENETS?

http://www.intriguing-history. com/richard-ii-1377-1399-plant agenet/


[20]

WIKIPEDIAKATHERINE SWYNFORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Katherine_Swynford



[21]


WIKIPEDIACONSTANCE OF CASTILE, DUCHESS OF LANCASTER
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Constance_of_Castile,_Duchess_ of_Lancaster



[22]
PETER OF CASTILE [NAMED ''THE CRUEL], FATHER OFCONSTANCE OF CASTILE

WIKIPEDIAPETER OF CASTILE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Peter_of_Castile



[23]

HENRY VII  OF ENGLAND [FIRST HENRY TUDOR]SON OF MARGARET BEAUFORT AND EDMUND TUDORHALFBROTHER OF KING HENRY VI FROM HIS MOTHER'SSIDE
WIKIPEDIAHENRY VII OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_VII_of_England

HIS FATHEREDMUND TUDOR, 1ST EARL OF RICHMIND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_Tudor,_1st_Earl_of_Rich mond


HIS MOTHERMARGARET BEAUFORT, COUNTESS OF RICHMIND AND DERBY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Margaret_Beaufort,_Countess_of _Richmond_and_Derby






[24]

MARGARET BEAUFORT WAS THE GREAT GRANDDAUGHTER OFJOHN OF GAUNT AND KATHERINE SWYNFORDHER FATHER WAS JOHN BEAUFORT, THE 1ST DUKE OF SOMERSETAND HE [JOHN BEAUFORT] WAS THE SON OF JOHN BEAUFORT,THE 1ST EARL OF BEAUFORTAND THE 1ST EARL OF BEAUFORT WAS THE SON OFJOHN OF GAUNT AND KATHERINE SWYNFORD
WIKIPEDIAMARGARET BEAUFORT, COUNTESS OF RICHMOND AND DERBY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Margaret_Beaufort,_Countess_of _Richmond_and_Derby


HER FATHERJOHN BEAUFORT. 1ST DUKE OF SOMERSET

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_Beaufort,_1st_Duke_of_Som erset


HER GRANDFATHERJOHN BEAUFORT, 1ST EARL OF SOMERSET

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_Beaufort,_1st_Earl_of_Som erset


HER GREATGRANDPARENTS
JOHN OF GAUNT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John_of_Gaunt


KATHERINE SWYNFORD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Katherine_Swynford



[25]

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS OFTHE ROSES/A TRAVEL TO THE PASTASTRID ESSED3 FEBRUARY 2015

https://www.astridessed.nl/the -wars-of-the-rosescauses-of-th e-wars-of-the-rosesa-travel-to -the-past/


WIKIPEDIAHOUSE OF BEAUFORT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ House_of_Beaufort

SO THE CHILDREN OF JOHN OF GAUNT AND KATHERINESWYNFORD WERE NAMED BEAUFORT
BUT:ORIGINALLY THE BEAUFORT TITLE AND NAME [WITH POSSESSIONS] WASINHERITED BY EARL HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER[ALTHOUGH HE WAS NO EARL OF LANCASTER YETON THAT MOMENT, SINCE THE TITLE WAS THEN HELDBY HIS BROTHER, THOMAS, 2ND EARL OF LANCASTER,WHO HAD INHERITED IT FROM HIS AND HENRY'S FATHER,EDMUND CROUCHBACK, 1ST EARL OF LANCASTER ANDSON OF KING HENRY III AND BROTHER OF THE LATERKING EDWARD I]ANYWAY, HENRY OF LANCASTER INHERITED THE TITLEIN 1317 FROM HIS YOUNGER BROTHER JOHN.THIS TITLE REMAINED IN THE FAMILY AND THETITLE CAME TO JOHN OF GAUNT,DUE TO HIS MARRIAGE WITH EARL HENRY'S GRANDDAUGHTER,BLANCHE OF LANCASTER
SEE ALSOEDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOTHENRY, EARL OF LANCASTER

''As well as his elder brother Thomas, Henry of Lancaster had a younger brother, John, who died childless in 1317; Henry was heir to his lands in France, including Beaufort, after which the illegitimate children of his grandson by marriage and heir John of Gaunt were named.''

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2011/04/henry-of-lancaste r.html




SO IN THE STRICT SENSE THE BEAUFORTS WERE NO BLOODFAMILY OF THE ''OLD'' BEAUFORT, EARL HENRY, SINCETHEY WERE CHILDREN OF JOHN OF GAUNT AND KATHRYNSWYNFORD AND NOT FROM BLANCHE OF LANCASTER,EARL HENRY'S GRANDDAUGHTER


[26]

WIKIPEDIABLANCHE OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Blanche_of_Lancaster


HER FATHER WAS HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OFLANCASTER
WIKIPEDIAHENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_of_Grosmont,_1st_Duke_of _Lancaster



EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOTA VERRAY PARFIT GENTIL KNYGHT: HENRY OF GROSMONT,DUKE OF LANCASTER (1)
http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/08/verray-parfit-gen til-knyght-henry-of.html



EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOTA VERRAY PARFIT GENTIL KNYGHT: HENRY OF GROSMONT,DUKE OF LANCASTER (2)

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/11/verray-parfit-gen til-knyght-henry-of.html



EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOTA VERRAY PARFIT GENTIL KNYGHT: HENRY OF GROSMONT,DUKE OF LANCASTER (3)

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2009/11/verray-parfit-gen til-knyght-henry-of_09.html




[27]


WIKIPEDIABLANCHE OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Blanche_of_Lancaster




HER FATHER  HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OFLANCASTER
WIKIPEDIAHENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_of_Grosmont,_1st_Duke_of _Lancaster

HER GRANDFATHEREARL HENRY, 3RD EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry,_3rd_Earl_of_Lancaster


HER GREATGRANDFATHEREDMUND CROUCHBACK, 1ST EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edmund_Crouchback


HER GREATGRANDFATHER, KING HENRY OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_III_of_England


EDMUND CROCHBACK WAS THE BROTHER OF THE LATERKING EDWARD I, WHO SUCCEEDED HIS FATHER KING HENRY III
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Edward_I_of_England


AND LAST, BUT NOT LEAST:EDMUND CROUCHBACK'S ELDEST SON AND BROTHEROF EARL HENRY, THOMAS OF LANCASTER, WAS THE2ND EARL OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Thomas,_2nd_Earl_of_Lancaster


SEE ALSO
THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II/FROM WARLORD TO SAINTASTRID ESSED18 SEPTEMBER 2017

https://www.astridessed.nl/tho mas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin- of-king-edward-iifrom-warlord- to-saint/



[28]


THOMAS OF LANCASTER, REBEL COUSIN OF KING EDWARD II/FROM WARLORD TO SAINTASTRID ESSED18 SEPTEMBER 2017

https://www.astridessed.nl/tho mas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin- of-king-edward-iifrom-warlord- to-saint/

SEE ALSO





http://community.dewereldmorgen.be/blog/astridessed/2017/09/18/thomas-of-lancaster-rebel-cousin-of-king-edward-iifrom-warlord-to-saint






[29]


' A few years later, in 1351, Edward bestowed an even greater honour on Lancaster when he created him Duke of Lancaster.''
HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER/DUKE OFLANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_of_Grosmont,_1st_Duke_of _Lancaster#Duke_of_Lancaster


ORIGINAL SOURCE
HENRY OF GROSMONT, 1ST DUKE OF LANCASTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Henry_of_Grosmont,_1st_Duke_of _Lancaster



[30]

WIKIPEDIAIURE UXORIS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Jure_uxoris



[31]

''On 3 February 1399, John of Gaunt died. Rather than allowing Bolingbroke to succeed, Richard extended the term of his exile to life and expropriated his properties.[67] The king felt safe from Bolingbroke, who was residing in Paris, since the French had little interest in any challenge to Richard and his peace policy.[68] Richard left the country in May for another expedition in Ireland.''
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND/SECOND CRISIS OF 1397-99
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Richard_II_of_England#Second_ crisis_of_1397%E2%80%9399


''In June 1399, Louis, Duke of Orléans, gained control of the court of the insane Charles VI of France. The policy of rapprochement with the English crown did not suit Louis's political ambitions, and for this reason he found it opportune to allow Henry to leave for England.[71] With a small group of followers, Bolingbroke landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire towards the end of June 1399.[72] Men from all over the country soon rallied around the duke. Meeting with Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, who had his own misgivings about the king, Bolingbroke insisted that his only object was to regain his own patrimony.''
'RICHARD II OF ENGLAND/OVERTHROW AND DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Richard_II_of_England# Overthrow_and_death


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD II OF ENGLAND


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Richard_II_of_England