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Fascism in Charlottesville, 2017/Racism in Selma, 1965/It's still on

dinsdag 22 augustus 2017
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FASCISM IN CHARLOTTESVILLE, 2017/RACISM IN SELMA, 1951/IT'S STILLON

SEE ALSO


https://www.astridessed.nl/fascism-in-charlottesville-2017racism-in-selma-1965its-still-on/




THIS ARTICLE IS DEDICATED TO HEATHER HEYER AND ALL THOSE OTHER BRAVE PEOPLE, WHO GAVE THEIR LIVES FOR THE ANTI RACIST STRUGGLEIT'S STILL ON

''“They’ve got to be brave every day. There’s no reason I can’t be brave for two minutes''
Spoken by the brave woman who confronted him abouta Nazi flag on his truck and uttered insulting language againsther
http://www.charlotteobserver.c om/news/local/article167144232 .html

Dear Readers,
About the nazi fascist march in Charlottesville, resulting in murder, ismuch said and done:But this  is what I have to say about it:


FASCIST MARCH IN CHARLOTTESVILLE
For me, that whole racist Charlotteville happening was as a horrortravel through time, the days of the Cilvil Rights Movement's struggleof the great Martin Luther King [1], Malcolm X [2] and so many others,who payed the highest price for simply asking for the black right onPURE EXISTENCE, for living as a human being!
The rights that were fought in the sixties, many people may have thought,were history and would be remain forever.A closed chapter?Forget it:Because the Charlottesville drama merely points out, that apparently,by every new generation, black rights have to be fought again......

WHAT HAPPENED?
In february 2017, the City Council of Charlottesville [in the State Viriginia]decided to remove the statue of general Lee [3], the commander of the Southern[Confederate] troops during the American Civil War, resulting in theemancipation of the slaves. [4]That Lee was at the wrong side of history, doesn't need to be explained,since he defended the Southern slave states.That even in 2017, not everyone understands that or is prepared to,is unbelievable, but true.There was a horrific neo nazi march in Charlottesville in supportof the maintainance of the  statue of the Confederate pro slaveholders general Lee, antiracist protesters were beaten up and a murder was committed. [5]
But first a travel back in a painful part of history, however filledwith great courage:
HELL ON EARTH ONE
RACIAL SEGREGATION IN THE USATHE SELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES, 1965
One must realize, that however disgusting and evil the august 2017 neo nazi march inCharlottesville and how serious a situation in which black rights stillhave to be fought, 2017 is NOT de sixties of the former century.The Civil Rights Movements in the fifties and sixties [6] had to fight for the barelyright of black EXISTENCE on a way we can't imagine anymore:The right to sit on the bus whenever one choose [7], the right to eatin the same restaurant as white people, even the right to use the same toiletand, elementary, the right to vote. [8]
I say it otherwise, quoting Malcolm X, the right to be treated as a humanbeingIn his words:''

“We declare our right on this earth...to be a human being, to be respected as a human being, to be given the rights of a human being in this society, on this earth, in this day, which we intend to bring into existence by any means necessary.” [9]

In his strategy, Martin Luther King didn't choose ''any means necessary'', but non-violent protests.Yet, not using any violence [in between: it is often misunderstood, thatMalcolm X ''used violence'', he did not, but believed in self defence] [10],he and the Civil Rights Movements met an abnormal form of agressionfrom diehard Southern racist segretionalists. [11]
One of the highlights of the Movement for Civil Rights were theSelma to Montgomery [the capital of Alabama] Marches [12]And Alabama was one of the most diehard racist Southern Statewith Governor Wallace, a diehard, tough segregationalist. [13]Goal of the Marches was to promote the constitutionalright to vote. [14]Those Marches, filmed and broadcasted on Television, met an extremeand abnormal police violence, seen by millions and the main reaction was indignation because of police violence against non violent protestersThe first March, on 7 march, when hell broke loose and police usedTEARGAS and BILLY CLUBS [15] against non violent protesters, was calledBLOODY SUNDAY [16] and one of the organizers of the March, Amelia Boynton,[17] was beaten unconsciousness , and the media publicized worldwide a picture of her lying wounded on the Edmud Pettus Bridge, where thepolice brutality took place. [18]
TO REFRESH YOUR MEMORY;Because people protested peacefully for their right to vote!!!!!!
AND THE BEATING UP OF AMELIA BOYNTON WAS NOT THE WORST YET!
The second march was a surprise for the oppressor!Due to wide indignation, more people confronted the police [alsoa growing number of white sympathisers and many clergymen] [19],andthe police wanted to let them pass, but Martin Luther King turned around and led the marchers back to the church. That second March, or non-March, is gone into history as ''Turnaround  Tuesday'' [20]
And that night,  a white group beat and murdered civil rights activist,Unitarian Universalist minister James Reeb, who  had come to Selma to march with the second Selma to Montgomery March .......[21]
His death caused widespread indignation in the country and Martin Luther King said at a at a ceremony at Brown’s Chapel in Selma:''"James Reeb symbolizes the forces of good will in our nation. He demonstrated the conscience of the nation. He was an attorney for the defense of the innocent in the court of world opinion. He was a witness to the truth that men of different races and classes might live, eat, and work together as brothers." [22]
Reeb was not the only deadly victim [in that period] of racist violence:On 25 february 1965, activist and deacon Jimmie Lee Jackson [23] died after being mortally shot by a state trooper, during a peaceful march in nearby Marion, Alabama. [24]This brutal murder was the direct cause for the Selma to MontgomeryMarches.[25]

MARCH ON MONTGOMERY
But then that great thing happened:The [third and now real]Selma to Montgomery march:A week after minister Reeb's death, federal Judge Johnson ruled in favor of the protesters, saying their First Amendment [26] right to march in protest could not be abridged by the state of Alabama:
He stated:
The law is clear that the right to petition one's government for the redress of grievances may be exercised in large groups . ... These rights may ... be exercised by marching, even along public highways [27]

AND THEY WALKED TO MONTGOMERY!THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE! [28]March began on 20 march, 1965 and at 25 march they all listenedto Martin Luther King's speech in Montgomer, Alabama!
Among the protesters marchers were the rabbi's Abraham Joshua Heschel [29] and Maurice Davis [30]
Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel later wrote:''When I marched in Selma, my feet were praying'' [31]
Coming into Montgomery, first a ''"Stars for Freedom" rally was held [32] with supporting singers as Harry Belafonte [33],Tony Bennet [34], Frankie Laine [35], Sammy Davis Jr [36], JoanBaez, [37], Nina Simone [38] and others. [39]Then Martin Luther King held the speech ''How Long, Not Long'' [40]

After the march and giving the petition [with the right to vote] toone of the secretaries of racist Governor Wallace [which took sometrouble, but at the end they accepted the petition] [41]
BUT AGAIN RACISM CAUSED A DEADLY VICTIM!At the night of 25 march, Viola Liuzzo [42], a white civilian rightsactivist, who had come to Alabama to support voting rights for blacks, was assassinated by Klux Klux Klan members members while she was ferrying marchers back to Selma from Montgomery. Among the Klansmen in the car from which the shots were fired was FBI informant Gary Rowe.......[43]
So far the FBI involvement in murders of civilian rights activists!
The march was an overwhelming succes

The Civil Rights Act [1964] already had ended legal segregation [44]
Now the Voting Rights Act [45], signed by president Johnson ataugust 1965, finally guaranteed something that is the most normalthing in the world [since 20th century!]THE RIGHT TO VOTE!

FILM SELMA

Those great events are told in the film ''Selma'' [46], a great filmI recently saw and can recommend to anywone who lovesfreedom. The film's title song is a deep moving and brilliant song ''Glory'' [47]I will end this article with.But now back to present fascist disaster.

HELL ON EARTH TWOFASCIST MARCH IN CHARLOTTESVILLE
Deja VuThat was the first thought that encountered me when I heard fromthe disastrous events in Charlottesville.Again the compelled struggle against racism and fascism.Agan the Evil of racism demanded a deadly victim.
Another Viola Liuzzo [48], Heather Heyer.....[49]
Events:
I described them above:To protest against the [at last!] removal of the statue of theConfederate general Lee [50], neo nazi's decided to hold a protest against this removal, with desastrous consequences:
So there was a nazi togethering at the Emancipation Park in Charlottesville [51][former Lee Park and in 2017 changed in Emancipation Park together with the decision to remove the Lee statue]It was a bunch of racist gangsters, like members of the Ku Klux Clan [52],National Socialist Movement [one of the largest neo nazi groups] [53], AltRight [54], etc.They came together in a protest ''Unite the Right''  rally [55]In their propaganda for their ''rally'', they openly were talking about bringing weapons and concealed firearms [56], on variousAlt Right and neo Nazi websites, they even made a “hit list” of local political leaders and police, referring to them as “n*ggers” and “Jews.......[57]While in the media the Alt-Right has worked hard to portray itselves as nonviolent and ‘not racist.’ ....[58]Dream on......Nothing could be further from the truth. 
and
In the past, those Alt Right guys [and their neo nazi ''comrades'']have carried out numerous murders, arson attacks andracist acts of intimidation.........[59]

When everything is said and done:That ''Unite the Right'' ''rally'' was merely intimidating and beating up peaceful anti racist protesters, ending in murder.

Events:
It all began the night before the rally, when a group of hundreds neo-nazi's,KKK members and other racist gangster groups assembled at ''NamelessField'' on University of Virginia campus 'so, friday night, 11 august]Like the old nazi marchs in Nazi Germany, they walked with torches, held hate speeches, chanting the nazi term ''Blood and Soil'' [60] and yelled ''Jewswill not replace us'' [61]Horrifying, as though a travel in time, when the Evil of fascism lead to theHolocaust! [62]
BUT THAT WAS NOT ALL!Reporters were attacked and intimidated, a small number of peacefulanti racist protesters were attacked and beaten. [63]When finally the police arrived [who was absent at the beginning ofthe nazi narch], the nazi cowards extinguished their torches and ranaway......[64]
BUT THAT WAS ONLY THE BEGINNING OF THE HELL, BROKENLOOSE AT SATURDAY 12 AUGUST, DURING THE NAZI ''UNITE THERIGHT'' RALLY!
The next day [saturday 12 august], the neo nazi rally was about to begin,the racist gangsters, who had gathered themselves aroundthe statue of general Lee in Emancipation Park [65] in Charlottesville, were confronted with thousands of anti racist protesters. [66]
And AGAIN the police stood idle, when the neo nazi violence, which had startedthe night before [67], broke loose.Of course the anti racist protesters fought back! [68]
And defending yourself against nazi violence, is called by some hypocritical mediaand politicians [[President Trump, who else?]''violence from both sides.....''[69]
Now I was not there:And I don't say, there was NO VIOLENCE WHATSOEVER at the side ofanti-racist groups [and I don't mean, of course, self defense], but factREMAINED, that the neo nazi and other fascist groups were heavily armed;A reported told:''“Most white supremacist and Nazi groups arrived armed like a paramilitary force — carrying shields, protective gear, rods and, yes, lots of guns, utilizing Virginia’s loose firearm laws. They used militarized defensive maneuvers, shouting commands at one another to ‘move forward’ or ‘retreat,’ and would form a line of shields or a phalanx '' [70]That sounds to me as a deliberate, military attackAnd they themselves admitted! Mike Parrot of Traditional Youth Network, a whitesupremacist group, declared:''“With a full-throated rebel yell, the League broke through the wall of degenerates and TradWorker managed to enter the Lee Park venue itself while they were largely still reeling. Michael Tubbs, an especially imposing League organizer towered over and pushed through the antifa like a Tyrannosaurus among raptors as league fighters with shields put their training to work.” [71]Again, that sounds facist military to me!

''VIOLENCE ON BOTH SIDES''?/WHO THE HELL COMMITTED MURDER?
After the fights between fascists and self defendinganti racists and the police mostly idly looking as if itwere some movie, the racists disappeared and a crowd of hundreds of anti racist protesters weremarching downtown.Then suddenly a vehicle turned around the cornerand plowed into the crowd, killing a woman,Heather Heyer........, who was an anti racistactivist and injuring many others [72]Heyer's killer was James Alex Fields, a, extreme right wingguy. [73] 
After initially defending white supremacists, babblingover ''violence on both sides'' [74], president Trump,after being heavily criticized, even by his own republicanfriends [75], was compelled to condemn the neo nazi violentgangs. [76]
But what did that really mean, when the same Trump hadcaused a political climate, encouraging white supremacyand neo nazi's? [77]Nothing.
Yet the murder was a setback for neo nazi gangsters,who now are driven in the defense and that's good. [78]
But let's remember, they are not defeated at all!
The struggle goes on.
From Selma to Charlottesville.
Admittedly:Much is accomplished since then:
Black people have accomplished elementary rights,to vote, to go to the same school as white folks,to sit in the bus whenever they will, to eat inthe same restaurant....Even there has been a black president, mr Obama, amilestone in emancipation, however criticized byme  and others for his role as leader of thegreatest imperialist power in the world [79].
But although 2017 is NOT the fifties and sixtiesUSA, there is much racism still.Look at the job discrimination, the brutalpolice violence [80]It's still on.
And then this violent nazi demonstration, oneof the biggest in long time! 
The struggle goes on.
I will end with the text of the impressive and magnificentsong ''Glory'' from the must seen film ''Selma'' [81]to which I earlier referred.See in note 82 ''Glory'' on Youtube
But here the text:
GLORY

LyricsOne day when the glory comes
It will be ours, it will be ours
Oh one day when the war is won
We will be sure, we will be sure
Oh glory (Glory, glory)
Oh (Glory, glory)Hands to the Heavens, no man, no weapon
Formed against, yes glory is destined
Every day women and men become legends
Sins that go against our skin become blessings
The movement is a rhythm to us
Freedom is like religion to us
Justice is juxtapositionin' us
Justice for all just ain't specific enough
One son died, his spirit is revisitin' us
Truant livin' livin' in us, resistance is us
That's why Rosa sat on the bus
That's why we walk through Ferguson with our hands up
When it go down we woman and man up
They say, "Stay down", and we stand up
Shots, we on the ground, the camera panned up
King pointed to the mountain top and we ran upOne day when the glory comes
It will be ours, it will be ours
Oh one day when the war is won
We will be sure, we will be sure
Oh glory (Glory, glory)
Oh (Glory, glory)Now the war is not over, victory isn't won
And we'll fight on to the finish, then when it's all done
We'll cry glory, oh glory (Glory, glory)
Oh (Glory, glory)
We'll cry glory, oh glory (Glory, glory)
Oh (Glory, glory)Selma's now for every man, woman and child
Even Jesus got his crown in front of a crowd
They marched with the torch, we gon' run with it now
Never look back, we done gone hundreds of miles
From dark roads he rose, to become a hero
Facin' the league of justice, his power was the people
Enemy is lethal, a king became regal
Saw the face of Jim Crow under a bald eagle
The biggest weapon is to stay peaceful
We sing, our music is the cuts that we bleed through
Somewhere in the dream we had an epiphany
Now we right the wrongs in history
No one can win the war individually
It takes the wisdom of the elders and young people's energy
Welcome to the story we call victory
The comin' of the Lord, my eyes have seen the gloryOne day when the glory comes
It will be ours, it will be ours
Oh one day when the war is won
We will be sure, we will be sure
Oh glory (Glory, glory)
Oh (Glory, glory)
Oh glory (Glory, glory)
Hey (Glory, glory)When the war is won, when it's all said and done
We'll cry glory (Glory, glory)
Oh (Glory, glory) Songwriters: John Roger Stephens / Lonnie Rashid Lynn
HEATHER HEYER, REST IN PEACEIT'S STILL ON
Astrid Essed
NOTES

[1]


WIKIPEDIAMARTIN LUTHER KING JR..
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Martin_Luther_King_Jr.



[2]

WIKIPEDIAMALCOLM X

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Malcolm_X



[3]


WIKIPEDIAROBERT. E LEE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Robert_E._Lee



[4]


WIKIPEDIAAMERICAN CIVIL WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ American_Civil_War


WIKIPEDIAEMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emancipation_Proclamation




[5]

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE NAZI RALLY INCHARLOTTESVILLE, VA4 AUGUST 2017

https://itsgoingdown.org/need- know-nazi-rally-charlottesvill e-va/



CRIMETHINK.COMCHARLOTTESVILLE AND THE RISE OF FASCISM INTHE USAWHAT WE NEED TO DO

https://crimethinc.com/2017/08 /12/charlottesville-and-the-ri se-of-fascism-in-the-usa-what- we-need-to-do


CRIMETHINK.COMONE DEAD IN CHARLOTTESVILLE: WHY THE RIGHT CANKILL US NOW
https://crimethinc.com/2017/08 /12/one-dead-in-charlottesvill e-why-the-right-can-kill-us-no w

[6]


WIKIPEDIAAFRICAN AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT (1954-1968)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ African-American_Civil_Rights_ Movement_(1954%E2%80%931968)

[7]

''On December 1, 1955, in MontgomeryAlabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake's order to give up her seat in the "colored section" to a white passenger, after the whites-only section was filled. Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation. Others had taken similar steps, including Bayard Rustin in 1942,[2] Irene Morgan in 1946, Lillie Mae Bradford in 1951,[3] Sarah Louise Keys in 1952, and the members of the ultimately successful Browder v. Gayle 1956 lawsuit (Claudette ColvinAurelia BrowderSusie McDonald, and Mary Louise Smith) who were arrested in Montgomery for not giving up their bus seats months before Parks''

WIKIPEDIAROSA PARKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Rosa_Parks



[8]


WIKIPEDIAVOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965/BACKGROUND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Voting_Rights_Act_of_1965#Back ground


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAVOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Voting_Rights_Act_of_1965


ANNIE LEE COOPER, WHO PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLEIN THE VOTING RIGHTS MOVEMENT

WIKIPEDIAANNIE LEE COOPER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Annie_Lee_Cooper


[9]

''

“We declare our right on this earth...to be a human being, to be respected as a human being, to be given the rights of a human being in this society, on this earth, in this day, which we intend to bring into existence by any means necessary.”



https://www.goodreads.com/quot es/787-we-declare-our-right-on -this-earth-to-be-a-human




[10]

HOW THE NEW YORK TIMES DISTORTED MALCOLM X' S VIEWSON SELF DEFENCEWALTER LIPPMANN

http://www.walterlippmann.com/ mx-nyt.html






''"It doesn't mean that I advocate violence, but at the same time, I am not against using violence in self-defense. I don't call it violence when it's self-defense, I call it intelligence."''

''"I don't favor violence. If we could bring about recognition and respect of our people by peaceful means, well and good. Everybody would like to reach his objectives peacefully. But I'm also a realist. The only people in this country who are asked to be nonviolent are black people."



MALCOLM X QUOTES

http://www.malcolm-x.org/quote s.htm


[11]





''Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. Enacted by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures in the late 19th century after the Reconstruction period, these laws continued to be enforced until 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America, starting in 1896 with a "separate but equal" status for African Americans in railroad cars. Public education had essentially been segregated since its establishment in most of the South after the Civil War. This principle was extended to public facilities and transportation, including segregated cars on interstate trains and, later, buses. Facilities for African Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to those which were then available to European Americans; sometimes they did not exist at all. This body of law institutionalized a number of economic, educational, and social disadvantages. De jure segregation existed mainly in the Southern states, while Northern segregation was generally de facto—patterns of housing segregation enforced by private covenants, bank lending practices, and job discrimination, including discriminatory labor union practices. "Jim Crow" was a pejorative expression meaning "Negro".''
WIKIPEDIAJIM CROW LAWS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Jim_Crow_laws



[12]


WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches



[13]

WIKIPEDIAGEORGE WALLACE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ George_Wallace



[14]

''The Selma to Montgomery marches were three protest marches, held in 1965, along the 54-mile (87 km) highway from Selma, Alabama to the state capital of Montgomery. The marches were organized by nonviolentactivists to demonstrate the desire of African-American citizens to exercise their constitutional right to vote, in defiance of segregationist repression, and were part of a broader voting rights movement underway in Selma and throughout the American South.''

WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches



[15]


WIKIPEDIABATON (LAW ENFORCEMENT)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Baton_(law_enforcement)





[16]

WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES/''BLOODY SUNDAY'' EVENTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches#.2 2Bloody_Sunday.22_events



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches






[17]


WIKIPEDIAAMELIA BOYNTON ROBINSON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Amelia_Boynton_Robinson


[18]

''The first march took place on March 7, 1965, organized locally by Bevel, Amelia Boynton, and others. State troopers and county possemen attacked the unarmed marchers with billy clubs and tear gas after they passed over the county line, and the event became known as Bloody Sunday.[6][7] Law enforcement beat Boynton unconscious, and the media publicized worldwide a picture of her lying wounded on the Edmund Pettus Bridge''


WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches
[19]

'' Many other clergy and sympathizers from across the country also gathered for the second march.''



WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches

[20]

WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES/SECOND MARCH: TURNAROUND TUESDAY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches# Second_march:_.22Turnaround_ Tuesday.22



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches

[21]

WIKIPEDIAJAMES REEB

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ James_Reeb


[22]


''Reeb’s death provoked mourning throughout the country, and tens of thousands held vigils in his honor.[3] President Lyndon B. Johnson called Reeb’s widow and father to express his condolences, and on March 15 invoked Reeb’s memory when he delivered a draft of the Voting Rights Act to Congress''
WIKIPEDIAJAMES REEB/MURDER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ James_Reeb#Murder



ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIAJAMES REEB

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ James_Reeb

[23]

WIKIPEDIAMURDER OF JIMMIE LEE JACKSON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Murder_of_Jimmie_Lee_Jackson



[24]


On February 26, 1965, activist and deacon Jimmie Lee Jackson died after being mortally shot several days earlier by a state trooper, James Bonard Fowler, during a peaceful march in nearby Marion, Alabama.



WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches





WIKIPEDIAMURDER OF JIMMIE LEE JACKSON/DEATH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Murder_of_Jimmie_Lee_Jackson# Death



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIAMURDER OF JIMMIE LEE JACKSON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Murder_of_Jimmie_Lee_Jackson





[25]

''On February 26, 1965, activist and deacon Jimmie Lee Jackson died after being mortally shot several days earlier by a state trooper, James Bonard Fowler, during a peaceful march in nearby Marion, Alabama. To defuse and refocus the community's outrage, SCLC Director of Direct Action James Bevel, who was directing SCLC's Selma voting rights movement, called for a march of dramatic length, from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery''

WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches



[26]

''The amendment as adopted in 1791 reads as follows:

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.''


WIKIPEDIAFIRST AMENDMENT TO THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION/TEXT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ First_Amendment_to_the_United_ States_Constitution#Text



WIKIPEDIAFIRST AMENDMENT TO THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ First_Amendment_to_the_United_ States_Constitution




[27]

''A week after Reeb's death, on Wednesday March 17, federal Judge Johnson ruled in favor of the protesters, saying their First Amendment right to march in protest could not be abridged by the state of Alabama:

The law is clear that the right to petition one's government for the redress of grievances may be exercised in large groups . ... These rights may ... be exercised by marching, even along public highways''



WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES/MARCH TO MONTGOMERY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches#Ma rch_to_Montgomery



WIKIPEDIA
SELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches


[28]

''On the morning of March 24, the march crossed into Montgomery County and the highway widened again to four lanes. All day as the march approached the city, additional marchers were ferried by bus and car to join the line. By evening, several thousand marchers had reached the final campsite at the City of St. Jude, a complex on the outskirts of Montgomery.''



WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES/MARCH TO MONTGOMERY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches#Ma rch_to_Montgomery



WIKIPEDIA
SELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches


[29]

WIKIPEDIAABRAHAM JOSHUA HESCHEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abraham_Joshua_Heschel



[30]

WIKIPEDIAMAURICE DAVIS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Maurice_Davis



[31]

''Heschel later wrote, "When I marched in Selma, my feet were praying."
SEE FOR THIS TEXT AT THE RIGHT SIDE FROM THE WIKIPEDIA PART:
WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES/MARCH TO MONTGOMERY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches#Ma rch_to_Montgomery



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches


[32]

''That night on a makeshift stage, a "Stars for Freedom" rally was held, with singers Harry BelafonteTony BennettFrankie LainePeter, Paul and MarySammy Davis, Jr.Joan BaezNina Simone and The Chad Mitchell Trio[94] all performing.[95]''

WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES/MARCH TO MONTGOMERY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches#Ma rch_to_Montgomery



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches



[33]

WIKIPEDIAHARRY BELAFONTE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Harry_Belafonte



[34]

WIKIPEDIATONY BENNETT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tony_Bennett


[35]

WIKIPEDIAFRANKIE LAINE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Frankie_Laine



[36]

WIKIPEDIASAMMY DAVIS JR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Sammy_Davis_Jr.


[37]

WIKIPEDIAJOAN BAEZ

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Joan_Baez



[38]

WIKIPEDIANINA SIMONE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Nina_Simone


[39]

''That night on a makeshift stage, a "Stars for Freedom" rally was held, with singers Harry BelafonteTony BennettFrankie LainePeter, Paul and MarySammy Davis, Jr.Joan BaezNina Simone and The Chad Mitchell Trio[94] all performing.[95]''

WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES/MARCH TO MONTGOMERY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches#Ma rch_to_Montgomery



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches


[40]

WIKIPEDIAHOW LONG, NOT LONG
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ How_Long,_Not_Long

[41]

''After delivering the speech, King and the marchers approached the entrance to the capitol with a petition for Governor Wallace. A line of state troopers blocked the door. One announced that the governor was not in. Undeterred, the marchers remained at the entrance until one of Wallace's secretaries appeared and took the petition.''

WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES/MARCH TO MONTGOMERY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches# March_to_Montgomery


ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches



[42]


WIKIPEDIAVIOLA LIUZZO

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Viola_Liuzzo



[43]

''Later that night, Viola Liuzzo, a white mother of five from Detroit who had come to Alabama to support voting rights for blacks, was assassinated by Ku Klux Klanmembers while she was ferrying marchers back to Selma from Montgomery. Among the Klansmen in the car from which the shots were fired was FBI informant Gary Rowe.''
WIKIPEDIASELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES/MARCH TO MONTGOMERY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches# March_to_Montgomery



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
SELMA TO MONTGOMERY MARCHES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_to_Montgomery_marches


[44]

WIKIPEDIACIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Civil_Rights_Act_of_1964


[45]

''The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.[7][8] It was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson during the height of the Civil Rights Movement on August 6, 1965, and Congress later amended the Act five times to expand its protections''

WIKIPEDIAVOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Voting_Rights_Act_of_1965


[46]

WIKIPEDIASELMA (FILM)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_(film)




[47]

YOUTUBE.COMSELMA [John Legend ft.Common Music Video)

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=ZzbKaDPMoDU




[48]

WIKIPEDIAVIOLA LIUZZO
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Viola_Liuzzo



[49]
THE GUARDIANHEATHER HEYER, VICTIM OF CHARLOTTESVILLECAR ATTACK, WAS CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIVIST

https://www.theguardian.com/us -news/2017/aug/13/woman-killed -at-white-supremacist-rally-in -charlottesville-named



[50]


WIKIPEDIAROBERT. E LEE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Robert_E._Lee



[51]

WIKIPEDIAEMANCIPATION PARK (CAHRLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emancipation_Park_(Charlottesv ille,_Virginia)



[52]

WIKIPEDIAKU KLUX CLAN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ku_Klux_Klan


[53]

NATIONAL SOCIALIST MOVEMENT (UNITED STATES)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ National_Socialist_Movement_(U nited_States)



[54]

WIKIPEDIAALT RIGHT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Alt-right




[55]

WIKIPEDIAUNITE THE RIGHT RALLY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Unite_the_Right_rally


[56]

ITSGOINGDOWN.ORGWHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE NAZI RALLY INCHARLOTTESVILLE, VA4 AUGUST 2017
https://itsgoingdown.org/need- know-nazi-rally-charlottesvill e-va/


[57]


ITSGOINGDOWN.ORGWHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE NAZI RALLY INCHARLOTTESVILLE, VA4 AUGUST 2017
https://itsgoingdown.org/need- know-nazi-rally-charlottesvill e-va/


[58]




ITSGOINGDOWN.ORGWHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE NAZI RALLY INCHARLOTTESVILLE, VA4 AUGUST 2017
https://itsgoingdown.org/need- know-nazi-rally-charlottesvill e-va/





[59]

ITSGOINGDOWN.ORGFAR-RIGHT TERROR GROWS, TRUMP BLAMES VICTIMSAND ''FALSE FLAGS''1 MARCH 2017

https://itsgoingdown.org/far-r ight-terror-trump-blames-false -flags-victims/



[60]

WIKIPEDIABLOOD AND SOIL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Blood_and_Soil




[61]

UNICORN RIOTWHITE SUPREMACIST MOB CARRYING TORCHES, ATTACKS ANTI RACIST PROTESTERS IN CHARLOTTESVILLE12 AUGUST 2017
https://www.unicornriot.ninja/ 2017/white-supremacist-mob-car rying-torches-attacks-anti-rac ist-protesters-charlottesville /



[62]
WIKIPEDIATHE HOLOCAUST
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ The_Holocaust



[63]


UNICORN RIOTWHITE SUPREMACIST MOB CARRYING TORCHES, ATTACKS ANTI RACIST PROTESTERS IN CHARLOTTESVILLE12 AUGUST 2017
https://www.unicornriot.ninja/ 2017/white-supremacist-mob-car rying-torches-attacks-anti-rac ist-protesters-charlottesville /


THE GUARDIANCHARLOTTESVILLE: FAR-RIGHT CROWD WITHTORCHES ENCIRCLES COUNTER PROTEST GROUP

https://www.theguardian.com/wo rld/2017/aug/12/charlottesvill e-far-right-crowd-with-torches -encircles-counter-protest-gro up
[64]




UNICORN RIOTWHITE SUPREMACIST MOB CARRYING TORCHES, ATTACKS ANTI RACIST PROTESTERS IN CHARLOTTESVILLE12 AUGUST 2017
https://www.unicornriot.ninja/ 2017/white-supremacist-mob-car rying-torches-attacks-anti-rac ist-protesters-charlottesville /




[65]

WIKIPEDIAEMANCIPATION PARK (CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emancipation_Park_(Charlottesv ille,_Virginia)



[66]

UNICORN RIOTVIOLENT WHITE SUPREMACIST RALLY IN CHARLOTTESVILLEENDS IN MURDER12 AUGUST 2017

https://www.unicornriot.ninja/ 2017/violent-white-supremacist -rally-charlottesville-ends-mu rder/


[67]

UNICORN RIOTWHITE SUPREMACIST MOB CARRYING TORCHES, ATTACKS ANTI RACIST PROTESTERS IN CHARLOTTESVILLE12 AUGUST 2017
https://www.unicornriot.ninja/ 2017/white-supremacist-mob-car rying-torches-attacks-anti-rac ist-protesters-charlottesville /


[68]

UNICORN RIOTVIOLENT WHITE SUPREMACIST RALLY IN CHARLOTTESVILLEENDS IN MURDER12 AUGUST 2017

https://www.unicornriot.ninja/ 2017/violent-white-supremacist -rally-charlottesville-ends-mu rder/


[69]


BBCTRUMP AGAIN BLAMES CHARLOTTESVILLE VIOLENCEON BOTH SIDES16 AUGUST 2017
http://www.bbc.com/news/world- us-canada-40943425


THE WEEK.COM40 PERCENT OF AMERICANS AGREE WITH TRUMP THAT ''BOTH SIDES'' WERE EQUALLY RESPONSIBLE FORCHARLOTTESVILLE VIOLENCE18 AUGUST 2017

http://theweek.com/speedreads/ 719237/40-percent-americans- agree-trump-that-both-sides- equally-responsible- charlottesville-violence





[70]

LOS ANGELES TIMESWHO WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE VIOLENCE INCHARLOTTESVILLE? HERE'S WHAT WITNESSES SAY15 AUGUST 2017
http://www.latimes.com/nation/ la-na-charlottesville-witnesse s-20170815-story.html




[71]


LOS ANGELES TIMESWHO WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE VIOLENCE INCHARLOTTESVILLE? HERE'S WHAT WITNESSES SAY15 AUGUST 2017
http://www.latimes.com/nation/ la-na-charlottesville-witnesse s-20170815-story.html


[72]

NEW YORK POSTSCORES INJURED, ONE DEAD AS CAR PLOWS INTOPROTESTERS AT WHITE POWER RALLY12 AUGUST 2017
http://nypost.com/2017/08/12/v ehicle-plows-into-counter-prot esters-at-white-power-rally-in -virginia/


UNICORN RIOTVIOLENT WHITE SPUPREMACIST RALLY ENDS IN MURDER
https://www.unicornriot.ninja/ 2017/violent-white-supremacist -rally-charlottesville-ends-mu rder/



CRIMETHINCONE DEAD IN CHARLOTTESVILLEWHY THE RIGHT CAN KILL US NOW
https://crimethinc.com/2017/ 08/12/one-dead-in- charlottesville-why-the-right- can-kill-us-now


[73]


HEAVY.COMJAMES ALEX FIELDS, JR, 5 FACTS YOU NEED TO KNOW

http://heavy.com/news/2017/08/ james-alex-fields-jr-charlotte sville-suspect-arrested- driver-crashed-rally-republica n-age-bio-video/


[74]


BBCTRUMP AGAIN BLAMES CHARLOTTESVILLE VIOLENCEON BOTH SIDES16 AUGUST 2017
http://www.bbc.com/news/world- us-canada-40943425


[75]

TAMPABAY.COMDONALE TRUMP NEEDS TO CLEARLY DENOUNCE WHITE SUPREMACISTS IN CHARLOTTESVILLE
http://www.tampabay.com/blogs/ the-buzz-florida-politics/trum p-and-rubio-react-to-racial-vi olence-in-charlottesville/2333 548


[76]

LOS ANGELES TIMESTRUMP: RACISM IS EVIL...INCLUDING THE KKK, NEO NAZI'S ANDWHITE SUPREMACISTS14 AUGUST 2017

http://www.latimes.com/ politics/washington/la-na- essential-washington-updates- trump-racism-is-evil- including-1502729266- htmlstory.html

[77]

THE NEW REPUBLICTRUMP'S RACISM AND THE MYTH OF ''CULTURAL MARXISM''15 AUGUST 2017

https://newrepublic.com/ article/144317/trumps-racism- myth-cultural-marxism


THE GUARDIAN VIEW ON DONALD TRUMP AND RACISM: A MORALFAILURE THAT SHAMES AMERICA

https://www.theguardian.com/ us-news/commentisfree/2017/ aug/13/the-guardian-view-on- donald-trump-and-racism-a- moral-failure-that-shames- america

THE INTERCEPTDONALD TRUMP HAS BEEN A RACIST ALL HIS LIFE-AND HE IS NOTGOING TO CHANGE AFTER CHARLOTTESVILLEMEHDI HASAN15 AUGUST 2017

https://theintercept.com/2017/ 08/15/donald-trump-has-been-a- racist-all-his-life-and-he- isnt-going-to-change-after- charlottesville/

[78]

ITSGOING DOWN''THERE WILL BE A BEFORE AND AFTER CHARLOTTESVILLE'':SOME THOUGHTS13 AUGUST 2017
https://itsgoingdown.org/will- charlottesville-notes/



[79]

INDYMEDIA ROCHESTER

MILITARY ATTACKS ON LIBYA/LIBYAN RESISTANCEMUST RELY ON OWN STRENGTHASTRID ESSED

http://rochester.indymedia.org /node/6238


INDYMEDIA PORTUGALOSAMA BIN LADEN KILLED BY US FORCES/NO JUSTICE WITHOUT A TRIALASTRID ESSED

http://pt.indymedia.org/conteu do/newswire/4472



[80]

THE GUARDIANYOUNG BLACK MEN AGAIN FACED HIGHEST RATEOF US POLICE KILLINGS IN 2016

https://www.theguardian.com/us -news/2017/jan/08/the-counted- police-killings-2016-young- black-men


''Black Lives Matter is an ideological and political intervention in a world where Black lives are systematically and intentionally targeted for demise.  It is an affirmation of Black folks’ contributions to this society, our humanity, and our resilience in the face of deadly oppression.''

http://blacklivesmatter.com/gu iding-principles/


ORIGINAL SOURCE



BLACK LIVES MATTER
http://blacklivesmatter.com/



[81]

WIKIPEDIASELMA (FILM)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Selma_(film)




[82]

YOUTUBE.COMSELMA, John Legend ft.Common Music Video ''Glory'' (2015)
https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=ZzbKaDPMoDU&spfreload=5