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The Moorish rule in Medieval Spain/How the Moors brought civilization to Europe

vrijdag 12 mei 2017
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THE MOORISH RULE IN MEDIEVAL SPAIN/HOW THE MOORS BROUGHTCIVILIZATION TO EUROPE


SEE ALSO


https://www.astridessed.nl/the-moorish-rule-in-medieval-spainhow-the-moors-brought-civilization-to-europe/





FOLLOWING:
THE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL SPAIN/AL-ANDALUS

Dear Readers,

A silly remark of author and historian
Kathryn Warner [EdwardthesecondBlogspot]
gives me the opportunity to take
you on a travel to the past.
I have done it before.
To the Medieval English period of dynastic struggle,
the Wars of the Roses [1455-1485], as some remarks about the Medieval 
King Edward II, whose tragic and strong friendship for men, eventually
led to his downfall [1284-1327, ruled England from 1307 until 1327]

https://www.astridessed.nl/kin g-edward-ii-the-tragic-king/


But this time I travel with you to Moorish ruled Spain in the Middle Ages.
Come with me..........

About Kathryn Warner:

As I wrote above:
Direct cause for my travel to the Moorish rule in
al-Andalus [Medieval Spain]:
My comments on an article of Kathryn Warner, 
historian and author
of ''Edward II, the Unconventional King'' and [Edward II's wife]
Isabella of France, the Rebel Queen.
[She is also known as blogger of
''EdwardthesecondBlogspot.com, where intersting facts about the
life and reign of King Edward II are to be found.]

Now Warner is a tough scientific investigator and has a great factual
knowledge about the first half of the fourtheenth century English history,
but much weaker in her interpretations and some assumptions.

Therefore I've criticized her recently on her blog, which she deleted.
See my earlier comment:


https://www.astridessed.nl/the -she-wolf-of-france-by-maurice -druonreaction-on-the-comments -of-kathryn-warneredwardthesec ondblogspot/


Of course she has the liberty to delete my reaction, or not
place it at all, eventhough it is a bit silly,in those Internet times.

Moreover I expect from a scholar, not to be afraid for well argumented
critics.
But that's her business.


I wonder, whether she publishes my new [underlying] comment on her blog
or not, but that's not important.
More important is to enrich my readers, you, with a very interesting
aspect of history, which is often neglected:

The great influence of the Moorish rule in Europe, especially
on Spain and the development of the Renaissance.
Recommended:
The documentary of Bettany Hughes
''When the Moors ruled in Europe'' [1]


See by the way my comment on Warner's remarks right under this article.
















A


THE ETHNIC/DNA MOORISH INFLUENCE ON SPAIN

WARNERS COMMENTS/
HER BLOG:
''EDWARD II: BOOK REVIEW: ISABELLA AND THE STRANGE DEATH
OF EDWARD II

SEE

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2013/06/book-review-isabe lla-and-strange-death.html


In this post on her blog, Warner gives a book review of Paul
Dogerty's book [ Dogerty is a famous historian and writer] [2]
''Isabella and the strange death of Edward II'' [3]

I didn't read the book, so I can't judge all the comments Warner made,
although some [which I can judje without reading the book, due to
my historical knowlegde] certainly make sense.

But she made one silly remark, which was serious enough to be
criticized!

She wrote:

'The chroniclers attest to her loveliness, to her beautiful blonde hair, which she inherited from her father, Philip le Bel, and her slightly arabic [sic] features from her mother Johanna of Navarre''
......

 3) The colour of Isabella's hair is not stated anywhere; neither are her 'slightly arabic', written with a small 'a' for some weird reason, features, whatever 'slightly Arabic features' may be and how they came to exist in a woman, Joan of Navarre, who was of mostly French and northern European, partly Spanish, origin. '' [4]

''

So the mother of Isabella of France [Isabella of France was the daughter of the French King
Philip IV,  wife of the English King Edward II and mother of King Edward III] [5], called Joan of Navarre [6], was partly of Spanish origin and could not have had 
Arabic features?
In the 14th century?

COMPLETE NONSENSE!


Because as you may know, the Moors [Berbers/Arabs] ruled in
Spain from 711 untill 1492.
Over nearly the whole of Spain in 720 [7].
Then little by little they were droven back, first under leadership of
the one surviving [later there were more to come]
christian Kingdom of Asturias. [8]
But still controlling the major part of Spain [9], during 
 the dynasty of the Umayyad, which ruled nearly 300 years in Al Andalus
[name for Moorish-muslim Spain], from 756 untill 1031,
bringing al Andalus a great civilization, wealth and intellectual knowledge. [10]
To be explained:
The Umayyad dynasty was divided in the period of the Emirate of Cordoba,
from 756-929, and the Caliphate of Cordoba, 929-1031, but yet the
same dynasty [11]
After which the Moorish Kingdom fragmented in little Kingdoms [also called
''Taifa Kingdoms''] , which fought

against each other and the northern christian forces [12], untill the defeat of Granada, in 1492 , which completed the reconquista. [13]



SO:

The Moors ruled over Spain LONGER THAN 700 YEARS and there would
not have been any mixture between them and the original Visigothic
population?

NONSENSE!

Because that's what Warner is impying.
What a nearly stupid remark for a medieval historian!
See my comments on Warner's remarks under my piece, before
the Notes


B


THE ETHNIC/DNA MOORISH INFLUENCE ON SPAIN

INTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIAN
DYNASTIES, AND OTHER SOCIAL CLASSES




There are proofs of the  silliness of Warner's remarks:

See what scientists say:


  • The Spanish population may harbor some African-related admixture representing a fourth wave of migration into Europe, but affecting Spain much more than the other groups. The Spanish population shows an African admixture of 14.8% (12.6% Mozabite and 2.2% Mbuti/Yoruba), confirming that gene flow from Sub-Saharan or North African populations has occurred in the Spanish sample.[56]''
  • [14]






AND


''In terms of paternal Y-Chromosome DNA, recent studies coincide in that Iberia has the greatest presence of the typically Northwest African Y-chromosome haplotype marker E-M81 in Europe.[26][27] as well as Haplotype Va.[36][37] Estimates of Y-Chromosome ancestry vary, with a 2008 study published in the American Journal of Human Genetics using 1140 samples from throughout the Iberian peninsula, giving a proportion of 10.6% North African ancestry.[29][29][30][31] A similar 2009 study of Y-chromosome with 659 samples from Portugal, 680 from Northern Spain, 37 samples from Andalusia, 915 samples from mainland Italy, and 93 samples from Sicily found significally higher levels of North African male ancestry in Spain, Sicily and Portugal (7.7%, 7.1% and 7.5% respectively) than in Italy (1.7%).[38]'' 
[15]



Another proof is the Arab origins of some of the Spanish Kings:


For example, the second wife of the Spanish King Fruela II of Asturias,
was Urraca bint [daughter of] Abd Allah.
She was the daughter of the governor of Tuleda, member of the
Banu Qasi, a Mullawad [mixture of Berber, Arab and Iberian origin] Hispano dynasty. [16]
Two centuries later, there was a Queen Uracca of Leon, appartenly from dark
complexion, mother of King Alphonso VII, who showed
a slightly coloured compexion, inherited of his mother of course. [17]

AND CREME ON THE CAKE!

This coloured Uracca of Leon [and Castile] was a far ancestor of Queen Isabella
I of Castile, who would defeat thelast Moorish Kingdom,
the Kingdom of Granada in 1492........ [18]
See the list of Castilian momarchs. [19]
I have checked, whether the line of descent, from Uracca to Isabella,
was valid! 
Control for yourself! [20]

So coming to women of Spanish origin and Moorish [Arab]
descent.
See the foolishness of the remark of Kathryn Warner about Isabella of
France
I will repeat it, again for you to catch up with the direct cause I wrote this piece:
''The colour of Isabella's hair is not stated anywhere; neither are her 'slightly arabic', written with a small 'a' for some weird reason, features, whatever 'slightly Arabic features' may be and how they came to exist in a woman, Joan of Navarre, who was of mostly French and northern European, partly Spanish, origin. '' [21]

SO:

There WAS admixture and intermarriage between Muslim
and Christian dynasties, as well there was admixture and intermarriage
between nobility and commoners.
Also Berber [and Arab] military commanders married christian
Spanish women.

Mostly it were Berber-Arab men, who married christian-Spanish
women.
But it happened also, that christian-Spanish men married
Arab[Berber] women. [22]
This intermarriage was between kings [emirs], nobility and commoners. [23]


An example of the marriage of a Moorish woman in a christian royal
dynasty I already mentioned:

Uracca [NOT of course Queen Uracca of Castile of Leon],
the wife of the Spanish King Fruela II of Asturias.
She was the daughter of the governor of Tuleda, member of the
Banu Qasi, a Mullawad [mixture of Berber, Arab and Iberian origin] Hispano dynasty. [24]

However, an example of Spanish descent in the Moorish royal dynasty was
King Abd-al Rahman III, a king from
the dynasty of the Ummayad [25], who proclaimed himself
as Caliph of Cordoba [26].
He was the grandson of Emir Abdullah ibn [son of] Muhammad al Umawi [27].
The father of Abd-al-Rahman III [who was no Emir, Abd-al-Rahman was the
successor of his grandfather] was Muhammad, and his mother a christian
slave girl and concubine, Muzna or Muzayna. [28, Wikipedia]
 His paternal grandmother was also a Christian, but of roytal
blood, the royal infanta [princess] Onneca Fortunez, daughter
of king Fortun Garces of Pamplona, who was made captive.
 [29]
Abd-al-Rahman III was described as:having

''.. white skin, blue eyes and attractive face; good looking, although somewhat sturdy and stout''
[30]


I think this is enough proof for the admicture of African DNA in the
Spanish-Iberian [Iberian, a term used for Spanish in the Middle Ages],
as the follishness of the remarks of Kathryn Warner.
As a historian, she should know better.




B

I

WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE/[SPAIN]/
HISTORY/THE CIVILIZATION THEY BROUGHT TO
EUROPE

HISTORY/CONQUEST/CONSOLIDATION OF POWER

First:
For the period of the Moorish rule, I refer to Spain as [post]Visigothic Spain.
But in historical literature, Spain is often called
''The Iberian peninsula'' also.

Second:
Readers, realize, that when I write about Spain, conquered
by the Moors, it also consists Portugal!


Third:
The Moorish conquest of Spain was not just an action of
Berber troops, but ordered and orchestrated by the great Muslim
Arab Caliphate, under the ruling Umayyad dynasty, which stretched,
at the time of the conquest of Spain, from Asia [the Indus
river in India], Persia, the Middle East [the former Byzantine Empire,
Syria, Jordan, Libanon], till the whole of North Africa. [31]


Further Readers, it is important for you to realize, that through the
whole period of the Moorish rule, christians lived in Moorish
Kingdoms, as Moors lived in christian kingdoms.[32]
That happened generally in relative peace.
Many christians took over the Arab language and culture
and converted to Islam and there are no signs, that
there was any pressure in such conversion. [33]



CORDOBA, CAPITAL CITY OF AL ANDALUS


The intermarriage and admixture with the Spanish [Iberian, postVisigoths]
is interesting [34], but predictable, because of their 700 years rule.
Far more interesting is the civilization, the intellectual knowledge,
the art they brought to Europe.

First a brief history


Moorish-muslim Spain was called by the Moors [Berbers and Arabs]
''Al Andalus'', which means ''the land of the
Vandals'' [Vandals were referred to the Visigoths, the population of Spain,
conquered by the Berber military forces] [35]
Capital city of al-Andalus was Cordoba [since 717] [36], that was to become a center of great intellectual knowledge,

with a famous University and 70 libraries, visited by scholars accross
whole Europe. [37]

The Moorish rulers of Andalus were granted the rank of Emir by the
Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I in Damascus [38], on whose orders Tariq ibn
Zayid conquered Spain [al-Andalus] with 7000 Berber military forces. [39]
Later more about the relationship with Damascus.

So Berber forces beat the last Visigoth king [40]

Later, commander Tariq was joined by Musa bin Nusayr, general and governor under
Emir Walid I, who landed in Spain with an army  of 18,000 Berbers and Arabs
[41]
It took the Moors only four years to conquer Spain, probably due to the
fact, that the Visigothic realm was already desintegrating. [42]

INTERESTING FACT:
Gibraltar is called after commander Tariq, because it is the
Spanish derivation of the Arabic name ''Jabal Tariq'' [mountain of
Tariq] [43]


BATTLE OF TOURS [POITIERS]/TURNING POINT OF THE
MOORISH EMPIRE IN EUROPE

But the Moors advanced!
They marched through Francia [the pre Carolingian France] [44]
and occupying half of France [45], were defeated by Charles Martel,
major domus [46] of the Merovingian king [47] and the de facto ruler
[48], as the father of the first Carolingian king Pepin the Short [49]
and grandfather of Charlemagne [50]

That decisive battle was the Battle of Tours [51] [formerly called
the Battle of Poitiers].

It is often seen as a turning point of history and it was commonly assumed,
that were the Moorish troops succesful, they could have easily crossed
over the channel and conquered and converse England. [52]

II

WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE/STRIKING FACTS

THE CONVERSION OF JOHN LACKLAND, KING OF ENGLAND,
TO THE ISLAM?

About 370 years after the battle of Tours, there was a certain moment,
 that England could have turned in an Islamic State!

Yes, at first it seemed unbelievable to me, but according to some
sources, the English King John Lackland [53], brother and successor
to Crusade King Richard I [Lion Heart] [54], should have considered conversion
to the Islam. [55]

Background was a serious conflict with Pope Innocvent III, which ended
in an interdict of England [56], as the excommunication of John Lackland. [57]
To save himself from this dangerous situation [an interdict and excommunication
would eventually lead to chaos in the country and isolation from the other
European christian countries], in desperation, King John sent envoys to
al-Nasir, asking for help.
In return, John  offered to convert to Islam and turn England into a Muslim
State.
Caliph Nasir was said to be disgusted by John;s ''groveling plea'' and 
sent the envoys away. [58]

Is it historically true or not?
That's not certain, but it is interesting to speculate:
What if..........

III

WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE/
THE MOORISH CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
IN SPAIN
THE COMING OF THE UMAYYAD DYNASTY OF CORDOBA

I wrote it before:
The invasion of Spain, Medieval Hispania [or Iberia] [59] and Francia [60] was led by
the Umayyad dynasty (Arabic: بنو أمية banū umayya / الأمويون al-umawiyyūn‎‎ also "Umawi") [61], the first dynasty of caliphs [civil and religious rulers] 
after the reign of the Rashidun caliphs [62] ended.
 The Umayyad Caliphate, at the time of the Battle of Tours, was perhaps the world's foremost military power. Great expansion of the Caliphate occurred under the reign of the Umayyads.

Muslim armies pushed east across Persia and west across North Africa 
through the late 7th century. [63]

From 711 untill 762, with the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty with
Abd-al-rahman as the first Emir, it was a time of conquest [of Spain]
military expansion in France and fighting for power. [64]



THE UMMAYAD EMIRATE/THE COMING
OF ABD-AL-RAHMAN/A SUCCES STORY

And then came Abd-al-Rahman, who became Abd-al-Rahman I:

He had come a long way, from Syria, via North Africa and was a member of the
Damascus royal dynasty, the Umayyad. [65]


His story is fascinating, but I can't tell it without a little
explanation of the political situation, as the relations between
Al-Andalus and the Umayyad.

BACKGROUND OF ABD-AL-RAHMAN/THE DAMASCUS UMAYYAD
CALIPHATE

To understand the story of Abd-al-Rahman I is to understand
the close ties between al-Andalus and the great muslim Empire,
then ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, to which Abd-al-Rahman 
belonged.
As told before, The Umayyad stretched from the territories in the east untill Persia, in
the Middle East, the greatest part of the Byzantine Empire 
and North Africa, from which al-Andalus was conquered [66], under the order of
the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I in Damascus. [67]

SO IN FACT, AL-ANDALUS WAS PART OF THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE,
and the al-Andalus rulers were bound to pay respect to the Ummayad caliphs.

The populations of the conquered territories, as well by the predecessing Rashidun Caliphate
see below], as the Umayyads, stretching from Persia untill North Africa, were conversed to Islam.

CALIPHATES

There were a number of Arab Caliphates [better said ''Muslim'', because 
later Caliphates were not Arab], 
[68], with the Rashidun Caliphate to begin with [69]
The Rashidun Caliphate, which started after the death of the Prophet 
Muhammad, founder of the Islam, [70] was the first Caliphate, an impressive Empire [to use
that word for a while], which stretched untill Persia [Iran],
in the North, Byzantine Syria, Anatolia [later Turkey], the other
Middle Eastern countries and in the West, 
a great part of North Africa. [71]


The period we are interested in, however, is the  second Caliphate,
the Umayyad Caliphate [72], the original royal dynasty of Abd-al-Rahman..[73]
The main power base of the Ummayad Caliphate was in Syria, its
capital was Damascus, but shortly, from 744 untill the fall of the
Umayyads in 750, the capital city was Harran, a city in Upper
Mesopotamia [northwestern of Iraq and the southeastern Turkey] [74] 
Under the Ummayyad Caliphate whole North Africa was 
conquered and now  it was really an Empire. [75] 

SO:
The Umayyad Caliphate, at the time of the Battle of Tours [732,
when the Moors were beaten by Charles Martel, grandfather of Charlemagne], was perhaps the world's foremost military power! [76]



ABD-AL-RAHMAN AND THE FALL OF THE DAMASCUS UMAYYAD
CALIPHATE
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FLIGHT FROM DAMASCUS AND EXILE YEARS IN
NORTH-AFRICA

After the succesful uprising of the Abbasids against the Ummayad
Caliphs, nearly the whole Ummayad royal family was massacred. 
[77]
Needless to say, that the Abbasides became the new ruling dynasty,
the Abassid Caliphate [78]

But Abd-al-Rahman, [grandson of Caliph HISHAM IBN ABD AL-MALIK
[passed on in 743] [79], who was on the death list too, managed to escape. 
Maybe because his mother was a Berber woman [concubine of
his father], he fled to North-Africa, together with his brother, son and
some other relatives. [80]
After nearly escaping an assissination from an Abbasid death squad,
by which he lost his brother [81], Abd-al-Rahman and his Greek freedman,
Bedr, reached modern-day Morocco, not after many adventures  [82] [before, he had put his son into safety]
[83]
From Marocco he went to al-Andalus, to establish the Umayyad dynasty, from

which he became the first Emir. [84]

BEFORE BECOMING ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/
IN AL-ANDALUS/FIGHTING FOR POWER


He landed in al-Andalus in 755, probably in Malaga,
where the conquering Moors
were involved in a power struggle between Berbers and Arabs.
Upon landing, Abd al-Rahman was greeted by old Umayyad  clients Abu Uthman and Ibn Khalid and an escort of 300 cavalry.[10] During his brief time in Malaga, he was able to amass local support quickly. Waves of people made their way to Málaga to pay respect to the prince they thought was dead. [85]

Interesting reception indeed!
To make a long story short.
After a fight for power, during which he won growing supporters
over, he succeeded, won the battles, and proclaimed himself Emir [and
was reunited with his son]. [86]

ABD-AL-RAHMAN I
THE ABBASSIDS/AGAIN

But some things never change.
After their assassination attempts, again, the Abbassids were in action!
Now to send an army to al-Andalus, which they considered as a part
of their bloody founded Caliphate.
But Abd-Al-Rahman I beat them in 763. [87]


ABBASID-CAROLINGIAN ALLIANCE

But the Abbasids believed in the formula:
KEEP TRYING......

So, some small pro Abbasid rulers in Northern Spain closed
a military alliance with the Carolingian King Charlemagne to defeat
Abd-al-Rahman I.
Which came to nothing. [88]
This alliance would last untill the first half of the 9th century...
[89]

Complicated world......

ABD-AL-RAHMAN I
RELATION WITH THE ABBASID DYNASTY

It's not hard to imagine, how the relation between Emir Abd-al-Rahman
I and the Abbasid Caliphate was.
Bad of course, in so far there WAS a relationship!
After all, they massacred nearly  his whole family, the Umayyads,
they tried to kill him on his flight and sent an army to defeat
him, when establishing his power in al-Andalus!

A Muslim ruler, Abd-al-Raham Ibn Habib al-Fihri [90], who ruled
before the coming of Abd-al-Rahman I and later was in conflict with
him, banished the name of the Abbasid caliph from the Friday prayers. [91]
I can imagine, that Abd-al-Rahman I maintained that banishment!
After all, praying for a ruler means acknowledgment of his authority.


You can also ask the question, why he didn't denounce
the Abbadid Caliphate by proclaiming himself caliph

[being the family survivor of the former, overthrown Caliphate], as
his descendant, Abd-al-Rahman III, eventually did [92]
Likely Abd-Al-Rahman I didn't, because he had to consolidate his power in al-Andalus, 
where he faced several uprisings. [93]
Probably, we'll never know.....

But what we DO know is that he planned to wage war on
the Abbasid Caliphate, very likely also  to revenge
the massacre of his family. [94]
But due to domestic problems and the unrest with which he had to deal,
it never took place.

IV

WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE
THE CIVILIZATION THEY BROUGHT TO EUROPE
THE WORLD ABD-AL-RAHMAN I BUILD



AND THEN NOW, WHAT'S HIGLY UNDERESTIMATED IN
EUROPEAN HISTORY, BUT NOT IN MEDIEVAL SOURCES:
The civilization the Moors brought to Europe:

READERS!

Did you know:
That you would probably still write with the complicated 
Roman ciphers  [95],
when the Moors didn't invade Visigothic Spain?
That likely the Renaissance didn't take place in Europe, or far later? [96]

I deal with that later.

First the propsperity and civilization Abd-al-Rahman I brought to Spain:

He rebuilt the city of Cordoba, turning it to a wealthy, highly
cultured city.
At the time of his reign, there were 100 000 inhabitants, there was
street lighting [unique in Europe], houses with running
water, there were 70 libraries
and 300 public baths! 
Cordoba was the largest settlement in Europe! [97]

Because of his royal position [prince of the massacred Umayyad dynasty]
And-al-Rahman  had extensive trade contacts and relations, which made al-Andalus
[Spain] a prosperous country.
He sponsored elaborate building programs, promoted agriculture
and imported fuit trees, oranges, lemons, palmtrees, pomgranades, avocado's and
other plants. 
Irrigation systems were developed. [98]

He built  the Great Mosque of Cordoba,
to be extended under his successors. [99]


During his reign [and that of his successors], there was a great religious tolerance, althoug a special tribute tax
had to be paid by Christians and Jews. [100]



From a ruling point of view also  was ''clever'', that he founded a
standing army, consisted of mainly Berbers from North Africa, who
probably would be more loyal than the local populace..... [101]

So Abd-al-Rahman I introduced a propsperous trade, street-lighting,
libraries, built started the Great Mosque of Cordoba..

And then to realize, that at the same time, the Anglo-Saxon
[pre-English] Kings lived in wooden castles..... [102]



V


EUROPE SHOULD SAY TO THE MOORS:
''THANK YOU''

THE CIVILIZATION THE MOORS BROUGHT TO EUROPE
THE TRANSMISSION OF THE GREEK CLASSICS/
INTRODUCTION TO THE RENAISSANCE

TWO CULTURE BOOSTS

THE FALL OF ALEXANDRIA
THE FALL OF TOLEDO


Without the Moorish conquest of al-Andalus  [Spain]
the Renaissance [103] would not be possible, or far, far later! [104]
I state that boldly, because there is apparent proof for.

To say it shortly:

There were two boosts of civilization, which both were of the
highest importance to Europe.

The first boost of civilization, from which Europe benefited,
was the fall of Alexandria in 641, when the muslim conquerors
were confronted with the riches of the Greek classics, to
which they added their own knowledge.
They translated
the Greek texts in Arabic, brought them via Northern African
conquests through North Africa,  eventually,
to Spain. [105]
Especially Cordoba and Toledo were great centres of culture, visited
by many European scholars. [106]
Don't wipe out the transmission of Greek learning
via the University of Fez [oldest University in the world] [107]



The second boost of civilization was the fall of Toledo, conquered
by the christian King Alfonso VI of Castile. [108]

The rich knowledge of the Greek claasics and the added Arab knowledge
came out in the open for a great number of European scholars,
muslims, Jews and christians worked together [Yeah, it was real
teamwork!] to translate texts, there was a great mutual exchange,
a great reliigious tolerance and a great boost of knowledge.[109]

THANKS TO THE MOORISH INVADERS
Who brought Greek classics, enlarged with rich Arabic knowledge,
from North-Africa to al-Andalus, sponsored this knowlegde
into flourishing culture cities like Cordoba and Toledo,
giving European scholars the opportunity to renew their
knowledge of the Greek classics. [110]

And eventually, this great knowledge was brought to Italy,
and from Italy on, the Renaissancew began to flow, some
centuries later. [111]
Readers, look at the Renaissance not as a new European based
birth, but as a continuation of an intellectual movement,
which had been nourished centuries eralier, by muslims!

I point vehemently on this, because it is often negllected in
history! 



VI

EUROPE SHOULD SAY TO THE MOORS:
''THANK YOU''

THE CIVILIZATION THE MOORS BROUGHT TO EUROPE
MUSLIM SCIENCE AND OTHER INVENTIONS

I have written about the muslim transmission
of the Greek classics to Europe, by the Moorish
conquest of Spain, with added muslim-Arab knowledge.

But not to be overlooked and highly important is the
SCIENCE which was brought to and giiven to Europe.

The Moors brought to Spain sciences like medical science, astromony, Chemistry,
Mathematics, Geography as Philosophy [Greek-muslim influence] 
[112]
It was a transmission from ancient Eastern [Persian etc] civilizations, to
Greek, to Arabic, with Arabic additions.
Because the Arabs were not mere transmittors of Greek texts and knowledge,
but built forth on Greek knowledge, with their own views.
Algebra, a subdivision of Mathematics, is 
an Arabic word, like many Spanish words, beginning with al
[the]. [113]
The numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 en o are
Arabic numerals [ciphers] [114]
The word ''cipher'' is an Arabic word.  [115]
Paper [originally from China] was introduced and the Moorish
rulers built paperfactories.
As was mentioned before:
At its height, Córdoba, the heart of Moorish territory in Spain, was the most modern city in Europe. The streets were well-paved, with raised sidewalks for pedestrians. During the night, ten miles of streets were well illuminated by lamps. (This was hundreds of years before there was a paved street in Paris or a street lamp in London.) Cordoba had 900 public baths. [116]

Education was universal in Moorish Spain, available to all, while in Christian Europe ninety-nine percent of the population were illiterate, and even kings could neither read nor write.

Only the clergy could. [117]

And of course the Moorish-muslim-Arab civilization had been
influenced by older cultures and civilizations, as always is the case.
In this case, old civilizations from China, India and even the
Bablylonians!

But it is also to be remembered, that the Greek civilization,
which brought forth the Greek classics, also had strong
influence from Egypt, Phoeninians and so on.


VII



EUROPE SHOULD SAY TO THE MOORS:
''THANK YOU''

THE CIVILIZATION THE MOORS BROUGHT TO EUROPE
THE TROUBADOURS/A ROMANTIC STORY

At the cradle of the Western concept of romantic love,
the Troubadour culture, lay the Moorish culture!

It is a fantastic and thrilling story about transmission
of the Moorish culture to Europe!

LISTEN TO THE STORY.....


At the Moorish Court, there were siniging slave girls
[a less pretty side of Moorish rule....], who were trained
in singing, intellectual conversation and more skills.
When William VIII, Duke of Acquitaine [118] sieged the city
Barbastro [119], to help the christian King Ramiro I of Aragon [120]
in his war against the Moors and they succeeded, he took
as prisoners and war conquest, 100 singing slave girls
to France.....[121]
When he died, his son and heir, William IX ''inherited''
those girls and became the first troubadour! [122]





VII

WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE
THE MOORISH RULE/DECLINE AND FALL


But nothing lasts forever!

After the flourishing period of Abd-al-Rahman III [123]
[a descendant from Abd-al-Rahman I, the royal
fugitive from Damascus, who founded the Umayyad 
dynasty in al-Andalus/Spain], who built a magnificent
palace called Medinat Azahara [124] and who proclaimed himself as
caliph [125] [thus officially cutting all ties with the Abassid
Caliphate, which came into power by massacring
nearly all ancestors of abd-al-Rahman III, except his ancestor
Abd-al-Rahman I!], the rule of Abdal-Rahman and descendants was called
''the Caliphate of Cordoba ] [126], the Moorish rule deteriorated.

There were internal troubles, [within the royal family,with
local muslim rulers] 
and the Christian kingdoms in the North of Spain advanced, waging
war on the Moorish rulers. [127]
As one of the reasons of  the decline of the
Caliphate of Cordoba [from Abd-al-Rahman III, former it was'the Emirate of Cordoba, founded by Abd-al-Rahman I] [128],
is mentioned in the documentary of historian Bettany
Hughes ''When the Moors ruled in Europe'' [129]

Namely, that Abd-al-Rahman III neglected the
military defence and had no standing
army.
Therefore he had to rely on mercenaries [who had their
own ambtions, this is an addition of Astrid Essed] [130]

Be as it may, after internal trouble within the royal
family and with as well muslim rulers, as the Christian
kingdoms in Northern Spain, the Caliphate of
Cordoba fell in 1031 [131] and desintegrated in small
muslim kingdoms, taifa's [132]

See under note 133 a survey of the rulers of the Emirate
of Cordoba and the Caliphate of Cordoba, from the same
Umayyad family, except for the fact, that Abd-al-Rahman assumed
the title of Caliph [as mentioned above]

Interesting fact

''According to historians, the emirs and caliphs comprising the Umayyad dynasty in Al-Andalus were the sons of concubine slaves (almost all Iberians from the north of the peninsula). ..... [134]


THE BEGINNING OF THE END/
TAIFA'S/RECONQUISTA/THE KINGDOM OF GRANADA

So after nearly 300 years, the Emirate/Caliphate of Cordoba
came to an end.
Founded in 756 by the fugitive Umayyad prince Abd-al-Rahman
after the massacre of his royal family in Damascus with his
descendant Abd-al-Rahman III proclaiming himself to
caliph [in 929], this impressive reign came to an end in 1031. [135]
The end of an epoch!.

The fall of Moorish civilization in al-Andalus [Moorish Spain] was
about to begin.

TAIFA'S/RECONQUISTA/THE BEGINNING OF THE CRUSADES

The great Reign of Cordoba desintegrated in isolated city States,
the socalled Taifa's [136] and in the North of al-Andalus [where from
the beginning there were strongholds of Christian kingdoms, which survived
partially thanks to their mountainous strongholds], christian
troops flooded over al-Andalus, waging a war of scorched earth.[137]

Following that, the desintegrated muslim territories became tributary
States to the christian Kingdoms [on the blackmail 
principle:  ''I will not destroy your land, if
you pay me''] [138]
Historians tell us, that for one century [the 11th], due to
this tribute [blackmail] system, the whole christian Spain
lived at the expense of muslim Spain! [139]

So:
From the 11 untill the 14th century [ultimately ending with 
the fall of the Kingdom of Granada in the end of the 15th century],
al-Andalus was under christian attack, the socalled Reconquista [140]
a desasterous war of destruction, but also [in  modern terms] a war
of liberation against the Moorish occupation!


Ironically enough:
When the tensions between christians and  muslims [keep
in mind, that m,any ethnic Spanish people, former Visigoths,
were conversed to Islam too!] grew nearly unbearable, the great
flow of civilization took place, after the conquest of Toledo!
[141]

THE CRUSADES!/READERS!
It is also very important you keep in mind, that the christian attacks
on al-Andalus, after the crashing of the Kingdom of Cordoba,
coincided with the beginning of the Crusades, in 1095.
From that flow of religious wars on the Holy Land, the Reconquista
derived the justification for the attacks, enjoying the approval
of the Pope. [142]



HELP OF MAROCCO/THE ALMORAVIDS
AL-ANDALUS CRUSHED BETWEEN TO EXTREMES

To fight against the christian invaders [or liberation fighters,
you may choose, readers], the weak desintegrated city states
[after the fall of the Kingdom of Cordoba, you remember?],
asked help from North-Africa, coming from troops
from Morocco.
They were nomads from the deserts, newly conversed to
the Islam, with a fearful fighting reputation, the socalled
Almoravids. [143]
But except for their fighting spirit, they were religious
fundamentalist, who didn't like the al-Andalus society at all!

They were suspicious of the scientific collaboration between
christians, Jews and muslims and wanted to ''purify''
the Islam, bringing back ''basic Islamic values'', as they saw it.

Soon, the remaining rulers of Al-Andalus felt crushed between
the christian invaders of the North and the Almoravid helpers
from the South.
The al-Andalus society desintegrated further in corruption
and confusion.
Christian mercenaries would fight on both sides.

There came a situation of variying alliances, on both sides and
a powerful christian King in the North would give military
aid to a weak muslim King, in exchange for.......tributes again.

Al-Andalus was extorted further......[144]
See under note 145 an overview of the main Christian and
Moorish Kingdoms in al-Andalus.


SWAN SONG/
LAST STRONGHOLD/THE KINGDOM OF GRANADA


Desintegration, desintegration, desintegration......
In 1236 Cordoba, the ancient capital of al-Andalus,
fell, followed by Valencia and Sevilla. [146]
Untill in 1250, only the Kingdom of Granada survived! [147]
And despite of the fact, that it was a weak Kingdom, with
internal strife and factually a tributary State of the christian
Kingdoms in the North [148], it held its ground untill it was
conquered in 1492 by the reyes catolicos, Ferdinand and Isabella.
[149]

Aftermath.....


As all ''aftermaths'', the aftermath was dramatic, resulting in the
thourough and ultimate expulsion of the whole Muslim
population of al-Andalus.
The whole ''Moorish'' population......[150]
Also the Jewish population was expelled....[151]
As you see, I have put Moorish between ''
You know why
And why it is so ironic?

Because most of those expelled muslims were ethnic Spanish
people [descended from the old Visigoths etc], who had been
conversed to Islam, ...... [152]

But whoever they were, a human tragedy, the greatest
ethnic cleansing operation in Europe. 



So:
This was the end of the 700 Moorish rule in al-Andalus
[Muslim Spain], bringing great civilization to al-Andalus, from the fall
of Alexandria in 641, which opened the Greek classics for
the muslim Arab conquerors, translating them in 
Arabic and added Indian/Persian/Arab and other
Eastern  knowledge, and ultimately brought those wisdoms
to al-Andalus [Spain]

To the fall of Toledo [in 1085, reconquered by the christian armies],
which opened the Greek-Arab-Eastern wisdom to the
European scholars, laying the foundation for
the Renaissance. [153]

I REPEAT AND REPEAT THIS ARAB TRANSMISSION OF
CIVILIZATION TO EUROPE, BECAUSE IT IS SO OFTEN
NEGLECTED!


END OF THE JOURNEY


Readers!
I have travelled with you to the past again!
This time not to Medieval England of the Wars of the
Roses [154], but to al-Andalus, Medieval Spain, ruled
by the Moors, who brought a high civilization to Europe.

Direct cause:
A silly remark of Kathryn Warner in her [appreciated by
me, make no mistake!] Blog ''EdwardthesecondBlogspot'',
about the impossibility of ''Arabic features'' in Queen Isabella
of France, wife to King Edward II and mother of King Edward III.
[155]
See for my comment on her remarks, direct below

But that matters not, because it gave me the opportunity to
make this historical trip with you, from 2017 to al-Andalus
[711-1492], from the great Arabic Muslim Caliphate, through
the lands of North Africa, to Spain and the cultural
influence on the rest of Europe, leading to the
Renaissance.

It was my pleasure to share this with you.

I hope you enjoyed it as I did.


I will travel with you to the past another time again.


Thanks for accompanying me.
You were nice companions!


Astrid Essed






MY COMMENT ON KATHRYN WARNER







EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT
EDWARD II: BOOK REVIEW: ISABELLA AND THE STRANGE
DEATH OF EDWARD II
23 JUNE 2013


http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2013/06/book-review- isabella-and-strange-death. html






ISABELLA'S ARABIC FEATURES, NOT UNLIKELY SINCE
HER FATHER'S AND MOTHER'S SPANISH DESCENT



Dear Mrs Warner

You wrote:
'''The chroniclers attest to her loveliness, to her beautiful blonde hair, which she inherited from her father, Philip le Bel, and her slightly arabic [sic] features from her mother Johanna of Navarre''
......
''The colour of Isabella's hair is not stated anywhere; neither are her 'slightly arabic', written with a small 'a' for some weird reason, features, whatever 'slightly Arabic features' may be and how they came to exist in a woman, Joan of Navarre, who was of mostly French and northern European, partly Spanish, origin. ''

I couldn't disagree with you more:
Because, since Isabella's mother, Joan of Navarre, is partly of
Spanish descent, it is highly likely, she could have inherited
slightly arabic features.
As a Medieval historian you know, that the Moors ruled Spain
from 711 untill 1492 and it is impossible, that there is no mixture
of [arabic/Berber] DNA between the original [Visigoth]
Spanish populations and the Moors, with such a long a ruling period.
Besides, scientific researchs have confirmed it
See

''

  • The Spanish population may harbor some African-related admixture representing a fourth wave of migration into Europe, but affecting Spain much more than the other groups. The Spanish population shows an African admixture of 14.8% (12.6% Mozabite and 2.2% Mbuti/Yoruba), confirming that gene flow from Sub-Saharan or North African populations has occurred in the Spanish sample.[56]''




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ African_admixture_in_Europe


Besides:
Isabella could have inherited the arabic features also from
her father's side, since Philip IV of France's mother was a Spanish princess, Isabella of Aragon.


Kind greetings/Astrid Essed/The Netherlands



NOTES





[1]


YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA



[2]


WIKIPEDIA
PAUL C. DOHERTY


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Paul_C._Doherty





[3]



EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT.COM
BOOK REVIEW: ISABELLA AND THE STRANGE
DEATH OF EDWARD II


http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2013/06/book-review-isabe lla-and-strange-death.html



[4]


EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT.COM
BOOK REVIEW: ISABELLA AND THE STRANGE
DEATH OF EDWARD II


http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2013/06/book-review-isabe lla-and-strange-death.html




[5]



WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France




[6]



WIKIPEDIA
JOAN I OF NAVARRE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Joan_I_of_Navarre



[7]


THIS CART OF SPAIN [THE GREEN AREA] SHOWS THE GREATEST
EXTENT OF MOORISH EXPANSION IN SPAIN, IN 720


WIKIPEDIA
ISLAMIC AL-ANDALUS AND THE CHRISTIAN RECONQUEST
(8TH - 15TH CENTURIES]


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ History_of_Spain#Islamic_al-An dalus_and_the_Christian_Reconq uest_.288th.E2.80.9315th_centu ries.29


[8]


WIKIPEDIA
UMMAYAD OCCUPATION AND ASTURIAN REVOLT



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Asturias#Umayyad_oc cupation_and_Asturian_revolt



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
KINGDOM OF ASTURIAS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Asturias



[9]



Here you see Moorish power diminished [Look at the cart of Spain],
but still controling a major part of Spain


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emirate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba



[10]



WIKIPEDIA

THE UMAYYAD EMIRATE OF CORDOBA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#The _Umayyad_Emirate_of_C.C3.B3rdo ba_.28756.E2.80.93929.29



THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#The _Umayyad_Caliphate_.28929.E2. 80.931031.29



ORININAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula








ORIGINAL SOURCE


TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula



''The Caliphate of Cordoba subsisted three centuries - 756 to 1031 - attaining its highest power and splendour under Abdalrahman the third, surnamed Alnazar, or the prosperous, who reigned in the early part of the tenth century. His dominions included Catalonia and Valencia, Granada and Murcia, Andalusia and New Castile, Portugal and Sicily. Abdalrahman was probably the richest potentate of his age, his revenues amounting to thirteen millions of gold dinars, equal to about six millions pounds sterling, an immense sum in the days of Athelstan, the contemporary king of England.''
........
........
.......
''Cordoba under the Arabs and especially under the dynasty of the Omayyades from 756 to 1031, became one of the wealthiest and most cultured cities of Europe, rising to the dignity of capital of the Caliphate of Cordoba and metropolis of all Moorish Spain. The city of Cordoba, with its palaces and gardens, extended, at that time, twenty Miles along the banks of the Guadalquivir; and contained within its walls two hundred thousand houses, six hundred mosques, and nine hundred public baths. It was during this period that the city was resorted to by students of Arabic learning from all over the world. After its separation as a dependency of the Caliphate of Damascus Cordoba, rose to a point of such importance in Mohammedanism that its mosque, known as the Ceca, rivaled Mecca, and became known, in fact, as the Western Mecca.''

UMAYYAD CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA 929-1031

http://www.globalsecurity.org/ military/world/europe/es-calip h-ummayyad.htm




''Córdoba was the cultural centre of al-Andalus.[12] Mosques, such as the Great Mosque, were the focus of many caliphs' attention. The caliph's palace, Medina Azahara is on the outskirts of the city, and had many rooms filled with riches from the East. Córdoba was the intellectual centre of al-Andalus, with translations of ancient Greek texts into Arabic, Latin and Hebrew. The library of Al-Ḥakam II was one of the largest libraries in the world, housing at least 400,000 volumes.[13] During the Caliphate period, relations between Jews and Arabs were cordial; Jewish stonemasons helped build the columns of the Great Mosque.Advances in science, history, geography, philosophy, and language occurred during the Caliphate.[14] Al-Andalus was subject to eastern cultural influences as well. The musician Ziryab is credited with bringing hair and clothing styles, toothpaste, and deodorant from Baghdad to the Iberian peninsula''


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba#Cult ure




ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba










YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA





[11]



WIKIPEDIA

THE UMAYYAD EMIRATE OF CORDOBA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#The _Umayyad_Emirate_of_C.C3.B3rdo ba_.28756.E2.80.93929.29



THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#The _Umayyad_Caliphate_.28929.E2. 80.931031.29



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula




[12]

WIKIPEDIA

POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION (1031-1130)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_ presence_in_the_Iberian_ Peninsula#Political_ fragmentation_.281031.E2.80. 931130.29



DECLINE AND SUBMISSION TO CHRISTIAN RULE (1130-1481)


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_ presence_in_the_Iberian_ Peninsula#Decline_and_ submission_to_Christian_rule_. 281130.E2.80.931481.29



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula



''In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from Arabic: طائفة‎‎     ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, usually an emirate, though there was one oligarchy, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.''

WIKIPEDIA
TAIFA
SEE THE CART OF SPAIN, SHOWING THE TAIFA KINGDOMS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa



LIST OF TAIFAS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa#List_of_taifas




ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
TAIFA



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa




[13]

WIKIPEDIA

MUSLIM DECLINE AND DEFEAT


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Reconquista#Muslim_decline_and _defeat



GRANADA WAR AND THE END OF MUSLIM RULE IN IBERIA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Reconquista#Granada_War_and_th e_end_of_Muslim_rule_in_Iberia



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
RECONQUISTA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Reconquista



[14]



WIKIPEDIA
AFRICAN ADMIXTURE IN EUROPE



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ African_admixture_in_Europe





[15]

WIKIPEDIA

GENETIC HISTORY OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULA
NORTH-AFRICAN INFLUENCE



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Genetic_history_of_the_ Iberian_Peninsula#North_ African_influence


ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

GENETIC HISTORY OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULA




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Genetic_history_of_the_ Iberian_Peninsula


[16]


''His second wife, Urraca, according to Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Hazm, was the daughter of the Banu Qasi governor of Tudela. They were married by 917.''




WIKIPEDIA
FRUELA II OF ASTURIAS



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Fruela_II_of_Asturias




''The Banu QasiBanu KasiBeni Casi (Arabic: بنو قسي or بني قسي‎‎, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a Hispano-Roman Muwallad dynas ty that ruled the upper Ebro valley in the 9th century, before being displaced in the first quarter of the 10th century.''


WIKIPEDIA
BANU QASI


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Banu_Qasi



''The Muladi (Spanishmuladí      [mulaˈði]pl. muladíesP o r t u guesemuladi [mulɐˈði]pl. m uladisCatalanmuladita [muɫ əˈðitə] or muladí [muɫəˈði]p l. muladites or muladísArabi c: مولد‎‎ trans. muwalladpl.      مولدون muwalladūn or مولد ي ن   m uwalladīn) were Muslims of local descent or of mixed BerberArab and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages. They were also called "Musalimah" (Islamized) . In broader usage, the word muwallad is used to describe Arabs of mixed parentage, especially those not living in their ancestral homelands.[1][2]''



WIKIPEDIA

MULADI


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muladi





''Urraca, the daughter of ‘Abd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Lubb b. Mūsa b. Mūsa, married Fruela (d. 925), the son of Alfonso III (d. 910), who was the King of Asturias and León, with whom she had two sons: Ramiro and Ordoño''

BALLANDALUS.WORDPRESS.COM

INTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIAN DYNASTIES
IN EARLY MEDIEVAL IBERIA (711-1100)


https://ballandalus.wordpress. com/2015/08/04/intermarriage- between-muslim-and-christian- dynasties-in-early-medieval- iberia-711-1100/



[17]



WIKIPEDIA
URRACA OF LEON [ALSO QUEEN OF CASTILE]
LOOK AT THE COLOURED IMAGE!


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Urraca_of_Le%C3%B3n


WIKIPEDIA
ALFONSO VII OF LEON [AND CASTILE]
I CAN SEE SOME COLOURED FEATURES OF THE IMAGE, WHICH
HE MUST HAVE INHERITED FROM HIS MOTHER, URRACA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Alfonso_VII_of_Le%C3%B3n



[18]


''By 1491, the city of Granada itself lay under siege. On November 25, 1491, the Treaty of Granada was signed, setting out the conditions for surrender. On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim leader, Muhammad XII, known as Boabdil to the Spanish, gave up complete control of Granada, to Ferdinand and IsabellaLos Reyes Católicos ("The Catholic Monarchs").''


FALL OF GRANADA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emirate_of_Granada#Fall_of_Gra nada




ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
EMIRATE OF GRANADA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emirate_of_Granada





[19]


WIKIPEDIA
LIST OF CASTILIAN MONARCHS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Castilian_monarchs




[20]


WIKIPEDIA
LIST OF CASTILIAN MONARCHS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Castilian_monarchs




[21]




'' 3) The colour of Isabella's hair is not stated anywhere; neither are her 'slightly arabic', written with a small 'a' for some weird reason, features, whatever 'slightly Arabic features' may be and how they came to exist in a woman, Joan of Navarre, who was of mostly French and northern European, partly Spanish, origin. '




EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT.COM
BOOK REVIEW: ISABELLA AND THE STRANGE
DEATH OF EDWARD II


http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2013/06/book-review-isabe lla-and-strange-death.html



'



[22]


''Intermarriage across religious and ethnic lines was thus a common feature of both Christian and Muslim Spain in the Middle Ages, even though the marriage of Muslim men to Christian women was far more common than the marriage of Muslim women to Christian men (due largely to the Islamic prohibition of the latter).''


BALLANDALUS.WORDPRESS.COM
INTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIAN
DYNASTIES IN EARLY MEDIEVAL IBERIA [711-1100)



https://ballandalus.wordpress. com/2015/08/04/intermarriage- between-muslim-and-christian- dynasties-in-early-medieval- iberia-711-1100/





[23]


'''Marriage to local Iberian women became an established custom among the inhabitants of al-Andalus, whether commanders, caliphs, elites or commoners.''



BALLANDALUS.WORDPRESS.COM
INTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIAN
DYNASTIES IN EARLY MEDIEVAL IBERIA [711-1100)



https://ballandalus.wordpress. com/2015/08/04/intermarriage- between-muslim-and-christian- dynasties-in-early-medieval- iberia-711-1100/



[24]



''His second wife, Urraca, according to Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Hazm, was the daughter of the Banu Qasi governor of Tudela. They were married by 917.''




WIKIPEDIA
FRUELA II OF ASTURIAS



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Fruela_II_of_Asturias




''The Banu QasiBanu KasiBeni Casi (Arabic: بنو قسي or بني قسي‎‎, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a Hispano-Roman Muwallad dynas ty that ruled the upper Ebro valley in the 9th century, before being displaced in the first quarter of the 10th century.''


WIKIPEDIA
BANU QASI


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Banu_Qasi



''The Muladi (Spanishmuladí      [mulaˈði]pl. muladíesP o r t u guesemuladi [mulɐˈði]pl. m uladisCatalanmuladita [muɫ əˈðitə] or muladí [muɫəˈði]p l. muladites or muladísArabi c: مولد‎‎ trans. muwalladpl.      مولدون muwalladūn or مولد ي ن   m uwalladīn) were Muslims of local descent or of mixed BerberArab and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages. They were also called "Musalimah" (Islamized) . In broader usage, the word muwallad is used to describe Arabs of mixed parentage, especially those not living in their ancestral homelands.[1][2]''



WIKIPEDIA

MULADI


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muladi





''Urraca, the daughter of ‘Abd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Lubb b. Mūsa b. Mūsa, married Fruela (d. 925), the son of Alfonso III (d. 910), who was the King of Asturias and León, with whom she had two sons: Ramiro and Ordoño''

BALLANDALUS.WORDPRESS.COM

INTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIAN DYNASTIES
IN EARLY MEDIEVAL IBERIA (711-1100)


https://ballandalus.wordpress. com/2015/08/04/intermarriage- between-muslim-and-christian- dynasties-in-early-medieval- iberia-711-1100/




[25]



WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AR-RAHMAN III


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III




[26]



WIKIPEDIA
ASSUMPTION OF THE CALIPHATE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III#Assumption_ of_the_Caliphate



ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA



WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AR-RAHMAN III


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III




[27]



GRANDFATHER [AND PREDECESSOR] OF ABD-AR-RAHMAN III

WIKIPEDIA
ABDULLAH IBN MUHAMMAD AL-UMAWI


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abdullah_ibn_Muhammad_al-Umawi




[28]



Abd ar-Rahman was born in Córdoba, the grandson of Abdullah, seventh independent Umayyad emir of Al-Andalus. His parents were Abdullah's son Muhammad and Muzna (or Muzayna), a Christian concubine.[16]



WIKIPEDIA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III#Life



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AR0RAHMAN III


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III




[29]


''His paternal grandmother was also a Christian, the royal infanta Onneca Fortúnez, daughter of the captive king Fortún Garcés of Pamplona.''


WIKIPEDIA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III#Life



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AR0RAHMAN III


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III



WIKIPEDIA
ONNECA FORTUNEZ


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Onneca_Fort%C3%BAnez



''Onneca's father Fortún Garcés, the then heir to the throne of Pamplona, was captured in 860 in the town of Milagro during a punitive expedition led by Muhammad I, the Muslim emir of Córdoba, against the small Kingdom of Pamplona. The expedition resulted in the devastation of the Christian kingdom's territory and the seizure of three castles by the Muslim forces. Fortun Garcés, nicknamed al-Anqar (الأنقر) by the Muslims because he was one-eyed, was taken to Córdoba where he was detained for two decades in gilded captivity''


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Onneca_Fort%C3%BAnez#Marriage_ to_Emir_Abdullah




ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
ONNECA FORTUNEZ


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Onneca_Fort%C3%BAnez



WIKIPEDIA
FORTUN GARCES OF PAMPLONA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Fort%C3%BAn_Garc%C3%A9s_of_Pam plona






[30]


WIKIPEDIA
EARLY YEARS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III#Early_years




ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AR-RAHMAN III

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III




[31]


WIKIPEDIA
UMAYYAD CALIPHATE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate





''Ṭāriq ibn Ziyād (Arabic: طارق بن زياد‎‎) was a Berber[1] Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar.''


WIKIPEDIA
TARIQ IBN ZIYAD


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tariq_ibn_Ziyad


''Walid continued his father's policies of expanding Islamic power through conquests and took the early Islamic empire to its farthest extent. In 711, Muslim armies crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and began to conquer the Iberian Peninsula using North African Berber troops.''


WIKIPEDIA
AL WALID I
CONQUESTS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Walid_I#Conquests




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
AL WALID I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Walid_I



''By 716, the Visigoths of Iberia had been defeated and Iberia was under Muslim control. In the east, Islamic armies made it as far as the Indus River in 712. Under Walid, the Caliphate stretched from the Iberian Peninsula to India''



WIKIPEDIA
AL WALID I
CONQUESTS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Walid_I#Conquests




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
AL WALID I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Walid_I



[32]


''The border between Muslim and Christian lands wavered southward through 700 years of war, which marked the peninsula as a militarily contended space. However, Christians lived in Muslim kingdoms and Muslims lived in Christian kingdoms in relative peace, but violence did break out, especially in relation to competition for resources.[1] 


WIKIPEDIA
SPAIN IN THE MIDDLE AGES


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Spain_in_the_Middle_Ages






[33]





YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA





[34]




BALLANDALUS.WORDPRESS.COM
INTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIAN
DYNASTIES IN EARLY MEDIEVAL IBERIA [711-1100)



https://ballandalus.wordpress. com/2015/08/04/intermarriage- between-muslim-and-christian- dynasties-in-early-medieval- iberia-711-1100/



[35]


YOUTUBE.COM

WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA


''The etymology of the name has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals.''

WIKIPEDIA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Andalus#Name



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
AL-ANDALUS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Andalus




[36]



''

  • 717 – Córdoba becomes the capital of Muslim Al-Andalus.''




WIKIPEDIA
CONQUEST (711-756)


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#Con quest_.28711.E2.80.93756.29


ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula









[37]



''Córdoba was the cultural centre of al-Andalus.[12] Mosques, such as the Great Mosque, were the focus of many caliphs' attention. The caliph's palace, Medina Azahara is on the outskirts of the city, and had many rooms filled with riches from the East. Córdoba was the intellectual centre of al-Andalus, with translations of ancient Greek texts into Arabic, Latin and Hebrew. The library of Al-Ḥakam II was one of the largest libraries in the world, housing at least 400,000 volumes.''

WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/CULTURE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba# Culture



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba




''Cordoba used to be the jewel of Europe dazzling visitors from the North. With over 70 public libraries during the time of Caliph Hakam II, and 900 public baths, Scholars and booksellers flocked there and made it Europes intellectual centre by the 10th century A.D.''


MUSLIMHERITAGE.COM
CORDOBA, EUROPEAN JEWEL OF THE MIDDLE AGES


http://muslimheritage.com/ article/cordoba-european- jewel-middle-ages






YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA






''8. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, public libraries in Europe were non-existent, while Moorish Spain could boast of more than seventy, of which the one in Cordova housed six hundred thousand manuscripts.''


BLACK HISTORY STUDIES
15 THINGS YOU DID NOT KNOW ABOUT THE MOORS
IN SPAIN

http://www.blackhistorystudies .com/resources/resources/15-fa cts-on-the-moors-in-spain/


[38]



The rulers of Al-Andalus were granted the rank of Emir by the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I in Damascus



WIKIPEDIA
ABBASIDS OVERTRHOW THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ History_of_Spain#Abbasids_over throw_the_Umayyad_Caliphate



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HISTORY OF SPAIN


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ History_of_Spain




''Walid continued his father's policies of expanding Islamic power through conquests and took the early Islamic empire to its farthest extent. In 711, Muslim armies crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and began to conquer the Iberian Peninsula using North African Berber troops.''


WIKIPEDIA
AL WALID I
CONQUESTS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Walid_I#Conquests




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
AL WALID I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Walid_I






[39]


Ṭāriq ibn Ziyād (Arabic: طارق بن زياد‎‎) was a Berber[1] Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar



WIKIPEDIA
TARIQ IBN ZIYAD


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tariq_ibn_Ziyad





YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA


[40]





''711 – A Berber force of about 7,000 soldiers under the Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad, loyal to the Umayyad Emir of Damascus, Al-Walid I, enters the Iberian peninsula from North Africa.



WIKIPEDIA
CONQUEST (711-756)


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#Con quest_.28711.E2.80.93756.29



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula



YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA




[41]


''Musa, learning of Tariq's successes, landed in Iberia with an army 18,000 Berbers and Arabs.''


WIKIPEDIA/MUSA BIN NUSAYR/CONQUEST OF ANDALUS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Musa_bin_Nusayr#Conquest_of_Al -Andalus



ORIGINAL SOURCE
MUSA BIN NUSAYR


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Musa_bin_Nusayr




[42]


YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA



''In 712, Musa, the governor of Ifriqiya, arrived with another army of 18,000, with large Arab contingents. He took Mérida in 713 and invaded the north, taking Saragossa and León, which were still under King Ardo, in 714. After being recalled by the Caliph, Musa left his son Abd al-‘Aziz in command. By 716, most of the Iberian Peninsula was under Islamic rule, with Gallia Narbonensis taken between 721 and 725''


WIKIPEDIA
VISIGOTHIC KINGDOM/MUSLIM CONQUEST


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Visigothic_Kingdom#Muslim_conq uest




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
VISIGOTHIC KINGDOM


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Visigothic_Kingdom

NOTE:

GALLIA NARBONENSIS, WHICH WAS NOT UNDER
MUSLIM CONTROL UNTILL 725, WAS NOT LOCATED IN
SPAIN, BUT IN FRANCE [CALLED FRANCIA THEN, THE PRE
CAROLINGIAN PERIOD, THE PERIOD OF THE MAYORS
OF THE PALACE]


WIKIPEDIA
GALLIA NARBONENSIS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Gallia_Narbonensis



WIKIPEDIA
FRANCIA/DOMINANCE OF THE MAYORS OF THE PALACE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Francia#Dominance_of_the_mayor s_of_the_palace.2C_687.E2.80.9 3751



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
FRANCIA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Francia






''The most visible effect was the depopulation of the cities as they moved to the countryside. Even while the country enjoyed a degree of prosperity when compared to the famines of France and Germany in this period, the Visigoths felt little reason to contribute to the welfare, permanency, and infrastructure of their people and state. This contributed to their downfall, as they could not count on the loyalty of their subjects when the Moors arrived in the 8th century''


WIKIPEDIA
HISTORY OF SPAIN/VISIGOTHIC RULE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ History_of_Spain#Visigothic_ru le


ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
HISTORY OF SPAIN


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ History_of_Spain


''In history he actually is an extremely obscure figure about whom little can be said with certainty but that he ruled part of Hispania with opponents ruling the rest and was defeated and killed by invading Muslims who soon conquered most of the peninsula.''

WIKIPEDIA
RODERIC


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roderic



[43]



The name Gibraltar is the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name Jabal Ṭāriq (جبل طارق), meaning "Mountain of Tariq".



WIKIPEDIA
GIBRALTAR/NAME


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Gibraltar#Name


ORIGINAL SOURCE:


WIKIPEDIA
GIBRALTAR


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Gibraltar



''The name "Gibraltar" is the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name Jabal Ṭāriq (جبل طارق), meaning "mountain of Ṭāriq",[2] which is named after him.''


WIKIPEDIA
TARIQ BIN ZIYAD


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tariq_ibn_Ziyad






[44]


WIKIPEDIA
FRANCIA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Francia



[45]


LOOK AT THE CARTS OF FRANCE, WHERE TOURS AND
POITIERS ARE LOCATED
SO FAR THE MOORS HAD MARCHED AND OCCUPIED FRANCIA,
SINCE THE DECISIVE BATTLE WHERE THEY WERE DEFEATED, TOOK
PLACE NEAR TOURS AND POITIERS
AT THE OTHER SIDE:
FRANCIA [THE LATER FRANCE] WAS A BIGGER KINGDOM THEN
[SEE UNDER WIKIPEDIA/POITIERS], WHICH MADE TOURS AND
POITIERS LOWER LOCATED.
HOWEVER, THE MOORS HAD ADVANCED FAR ANYWAY.


WIKIPEDIA
TOURS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tours



WIKIPEDIA
POITIERS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Poitiers


SEE THE MEDIEVAL CART OF FRANCIA,
CONSISTING PARTS OF THE PRESENT WEST GERMANY
AND PARTS OF BELGIUM AND THE NETHERLANDS [IN THAT TIME
OFTEN BOTH CALLED THE NETHERLANDS]


WIKIPEDIA
FRANCIA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Francia




[46]


WIKIPEDIA
CHARLES MARTEL


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Charles_Martel



WIKIPEDIA
MAJOR OF THE PALACE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Mayor_of_the_Palace







''In 732 AD, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi and a large army of Muslim horsemen from Al-Andalus advanced 500 kilometres (311 miles) deep into France, and were stopped at Tours by Charles Martel and his infantry igniting the Battle of Tours. The outcome was defeat for the Muslims, preventing France from Islamic conquest. ''

WIKIPEDIA
TOURS/MIDDLE AGES


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tours#Middle_Ages



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

TOURS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tours




[47]



WIKIPEDIA
LIST OF FRANKISH KINGS/MEROVINGIAN KINGS OF THE
FRANKS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Frankish_kings# Merovingian_kings_of_the_ Franks



ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
LIST OF FRANKISH KINGS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Frankish_kings




[48]


''Under the Merovingian dynasty, the mayor of the palace (Latinmaior palatii) or majordomo (maior domus) was the manager of the household of the Frankish king. The office existed from the sixth century, and during the seventh it evolved into the "power behind the throne" in the northeastern kingdom of Austrasia. In 751, the mayor of the palace, Pepin the Short, orchestrated the deposition of the king, Childeric III, and was crowned in his place.''


WIKIPEDIA
MAYOR OF THE PALACE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Mayor_of_the_Palace



WIKIPEDIA
ROYAL HOUSEHOLD UNDER THE MEROVINGIANS AND CAROLINGIANS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Royal_household_under_the_Mero vingians_and_Carolingians




[49]


''Pepin the Short (GermanPippin der KleineFrenchPépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death. He was the first of the Carolingians to become king''
......
......



WIKIPEDIA
PEPIN THE SHORT, SON OF CHARLES MARTEL


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Pepin_the_Short





[50]


''Charlemagne (/ˈʃɑːrlᵻmeɪn/) or Charles the Great[a] (2 April 742/747/748[1] – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was the King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774 and Emperor of the Romans from 800. He united much of Europe during the early Middle Ages. He was the first recognised emperor in western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state which Charlemagne founded was called the Carolingian Empire.''



WIKIPEDIA
CHARLEMAGNE, SON OF PEPIN THE SHORT AND GRANDSON 
OF CHARLES MARTEL


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Charlemagne






[51]


''The Battle of Tours (10 October 732)[17] — also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs (Arabic: معركة بلاط الشهداء‎, translit. Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’‎)[18][19][20] — was fought between Frankish and Burgundia n[21][22] forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by 'Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus. It was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in north-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of Poitiers. The location of the battle was close to the border between the Frankish realm and then-independent Aquitaine.''



WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF TOURS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Tours




[52]





YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA




[53]


WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England




[54]


WIKIPEDIA
RICHARD I OF ENGLAND [LION HEART]


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Richard_I_of_England




[55]




YOUTUBE.COM
KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND: EPISODE I: NORMANS


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0PfoYkgoBZQ


''Writing two decades after the events, Matthew Paris, a St Albans chronicler of the early thirteenth century, claims that, in desperation, John sent envoys to al-Nâsir asking for his help. In return John offered to convert to Islam and turn England into a Muslim state. Among the delegates was Master Robert, a London cleric. Al-Nâsir was said to be so disgusted by John’s grovelling plea that he sent the envoys away.




WIKIPEDIA

MUHAMMAD AL-NASIR/RELATIONSHIP WITH KING JOHN OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_al-Nasir#Relationship _with_King_John_of_England



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
MUHAMMAD AL-NASIR


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_al-Nasir



[55]


''In the early 13th century, John, King of England was under pressure after a quarrel with Pope Innocent III led to England being placed under an interdict, by which all forms of worship and other religious practices were banned. John himself was excommunicated, parts of the country were in revolt and there were threats of a French invasion.Writing two decades after the events, Matthew Paris, a St Albans chronicler of the early thirteenth century, claims that, in desperation, John sent envoys to al-Nâsir asking for his help. In return John offered to convert to Islam and turn England into a Muslim state. Among the delegates was Master Robert, a London cleric. Al-Nâsir was said to be so disgusted by John’s grovelling plea that he sent the envoys away.''


WIKIPEDIA

MUHAMMAD AL-NASIR/RELATIONSHIP WITH KING JOHN OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_al-Nasir#Relationship _with_King_John_of_England



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
MUHAMMAD AL-NASIR


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_al-Nasir





[56]


WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/DISPUTE WITH THE POPE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Dispute_ with_the_Pope



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England



''Innocent set a commission in place to try to convince John to change his mind, but to no avail. Innocent then placed an interdict on England in March 1208, prohibiting clergy from conducting religious services, with the exception of baptisms for the young, and confessions and absolutions for the dying''


WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/DISPUTE WITH THE POPE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Dispute_ with_the_Pope



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England



''In Catholic canon law, an interdict /ˈɪntərdɪkt/ is an ecclesiastical censure that prohibits certain active Church individuals or groups from participating in certain rites.[1]''



WIKIPEDIA

INTERDICT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Interdict


[57]


''By 1209 the situation showed no signs of resolution, and Innocent threatened to excommunicate John if he did not acquiesce to Langton's appointment.[171] When this threat failed, Innocent excommunicated the king in November 1209.''



WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/DISPUTE WITH THE POPE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Dispute_ with_the_Pope



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England



[58]


YOUTUBE.COM
KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND: EPISODE I: NORMANS


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0PfoYkgoBZQ




''In the early 13th century, John, King of England was under pressure after a quarrel with Pope Innocent III led to England being placed under an interdict, by which all forms of worship and other religious practices were banned. John himself was excommunicated, parts of the country were in revolt and there were threats of a French invasion.Writing two decades after the events, Matthew Paris, a St Albans chronicler of the early thirteenth century, claims that, in desperation, John sent envoys to al-Nâsir asking for his help. In return John offered to convert to Islam and turn England into a Muslim state. Among the delegates was Master Robert, a London cleric. Al-Nâsir was said to be so disgusted by John’s grovelling plea that he sent the envoys away.''


WIKIPEDIA

MUHAMMAD AL-NASIR/RELATIONSHIP WITH KING JOHN OF ENGLAND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_al-Nasir#Relationship _with_King_John_of_England



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
MUHAMMAD AL-NASIR


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_al-Nasir




[59]


WIKIPEDIA
HISPANIA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hispania






WIKIPEDIA
CATHOLIC KINGDOM OF TOLEDO

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Visigothic_Kingdom#Catholic_Ki ngdom_of_Toledo



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
VISIGOTHIC KINGDOM


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Visigothic_Kingdom





[60]


WIKIPEDIA
FRANCIA/ISLAMIC INVASION


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Francia#Islamic_invasion



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
FRANCIA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Francia




[61]


WIKIPEDIA
UMAYYAD CALIPHATE

LOOK AT THE CART FOR THE VAST EMPIRE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate




[62]


''The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightl y Guided CaliphsArabic: الخلفاء الراشدون‎‎ al-Khulafāʾu ar-Rāshidūn), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, ‘Umar‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, and ‘Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate, at least.[1]''



WIKIPEDIA
RASHIDUN


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Rashidun




[63]


WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF TOURS/MOORS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Tours#Moors





ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF TOURS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Tours



[64]


WIKIPEDIA

TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA/
CONQUEST (711-756)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#Con quest_.28711.E2.80.93756.29



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula

[65]



WIKIPEDIA

LIST OF UMAYYAD CALIPHS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Caliphs#Umayyad_ Caliphs_.28661_.E2.80.93_6_ August_750.29




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
UMAYYAD CALIPHATE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate





[66]


LOOK AT THE CART THE VASTNESS OF THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE


WIKIPEDIA
UMAYYAD CALIPHATE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate






[67]


Ṭāriq ibn Ziyād (Arabic: طارق بن زياد‎‎) was a Berber[1] Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar



WIKIPEDIA
TARIQ IBN ZIYAD


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tariq_ibn_Ziyad






[68]


WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate



WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATES


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Muslim_empires_and_dyn asties#Caliphates




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
LIST OF MUSLIM EMPIRES AND DYNASTIES


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Muslim_empires_and_dyn asties







[69]


WIKIPEDIA
RASHIDUN CALIPHATE



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Rashidun_Caliphate





[70]



WIKIPEDIA
MUHAMMAD



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad



[71]



LOOK AT THE CART THE VASTNESS OF THE RASHIDUN CALIPHATE



WIKIPEDIA
RASHIDUN CALIPHATE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Rashidun_Caliphate




[72]



WIKIPEDIA
UMAYYAD CALIPHATE



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate





[73]



FAMILY LINE OF ABD-AL-RAHMAN I, FIRST CALIPH
OF THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE IN CORDOBA, AL-ANDALUS 
[MUSLIM SPAIN]:



ABD-AL-RAHMAN WAS THE PATERNAL GRANDSON OF
THE UMAYYAD CALIPH HISHAM IBN ABD AL-MALIK,
FROM THE GREAT UMAYYAD EMPIRE, STRETCHING FROM
PERSIA TILL NORTH-AFRICA


ADB-AL-RAHMAN I WAS THE GREATGREATGRANDSON OF CALIPH
MARWAN I, SINCE HIS FATHER WAS THE GREATGRANDSON OF MARWAN  I

THE LAST CALIPH FROM THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE, MARWAN II,
WAS, LIKE ABD-AL-RAHMAN'S GRANDFATHER, 
HISHAM IBN ADB AL-MALIK, A GRANDSON OF CALIPH MARWAN I




ABD-AL-RAHMAN [LATER I] SON OF MU'AWIA IBN HISHAM AND GRANDSON
OF HISHAM IBN ADB AL-MALIK

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I


ABD-AL-RAHMAN'S  FATHER, 
MU'AWIYA IBN HISHAM [WAS NO CALIPH, BUT AN ARAB
GENERAL]


WIKIPEDIA
MU'AWIYA IBN HISHAM


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Mu%27awiya_ibn_Hisham



ABD-AL-RAHMAN'S PATERNAL GRANDFATHER, CALIPH

HISHAM IBN ADB AL-MALIK



WIKIPEDIA 

HISHAM IBN ADB AL-MALIK


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hisham_ibn_Abd_al-Malik



ABD-AL-RAHMAN'S PATERNAL GREATGRANDFATHER,
CALIPH ABD-AL-MAILK IBN MARWAN


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-MAILK IBN MARWAN



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Malik_ibn_Marwan



ABD-AL-RAHMAN'S PATERNAL GREATGREATGRANDFATHER,
CALIPH MARWAN I


WIKIPEDIA
MARWAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Marwan_I






MARWAN II, LAST CALIPH OF THE UMAYYADS,
GRANDSON OF CALIPH MARWAN I


WIKIPEDIA
MARWAN II


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Marwan_II



WIKIPEDIA
LIST OF UMAYYAD CALIPHS 9661-6 AUGUST 750)


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Caliphs#Umayyad_Caliph s_.28661_.E2.80.93_6_August_ 750.29



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
LIST OF CALIPHS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Caliphs





[74]

''''During the reign of the Umayyad caliph Marwan II Harran became the seat of the caliphal government of the Islamic empire stretching from Spain to Central Asia.''


WIKIPEDIA
EARLY ISLAMIC HARRAN


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Harran#Early_Islamic_Harran



''Harran (Arabic: حران‎‎,Turki shHarranOttoman Turkish: حران‎,[3]) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa. The location is in a district of Şanlıurfa Province that is also named "Harran".


ORIGINAL SOURCE
HARRAN


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Harran



WIKIPEDIA
UPPER MESOPOTAMIA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Upper_Mesopotamia





[75]


LOOK AT THE CART FOR THE VASTNESS OF THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE



WIKIPEDIA
UMAYYAD CALIPHATE



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate




[76]


LOOK AT THE CART
THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE AT ITS GREATEST EXTENT


WIKIPEDIA
BATTLE OF TOURS/MOORS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Tours#Moors



ORIGINAL SOURCE
BATTLE OF TOURS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Tours





[77]



''The victors desecrated the tombs of the Umayyads in Syria, sparing only that of Umar II, and most of the remaining members of the Umayyad family were tracked down and killed. When Abbasids declared amnesty for members of the Umayyad family, eighty gathered to receive pardons, and all were massacred.''


WIKIPEDIA
UMAYYAD CALIPHATE/ABBASID REVOLUTION


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate#Abbasid_Revo lution



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

UMAYYAD CALIPHATE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate



[78]


WIKIPEDIA
ABBASID CALIPHATE



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abbasid_Caliphate





[79]


SEE FOR THE UMAYYAD FAMILY LINE OF ABD-AL-RAHMAN I, ONLY
SURVIVOR OF THE  ABBASID MASSACRE, NOTE 73





[80]


''Born near Damascus in Syria, Abd al-Rahman was the son of the Umayyad prince Mu'awiya ibn Hisham and a Berber mother, and thus the grandson of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malikcaliph from 724 to 743.[3][4] He was twenty when his family, the ruling Umayyads, were overthrown by the Abbasid Revolution in 748–750. Abd al-Rahman and a small part of his family fled Damascus, where the center of Umayyad power had been; people moving with him include his brother Yahya, his four-year-old son Sulayman, and some of his sisters, as well as his Greek freedman, Bedr.''


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FLIGHT FROM DAMASCUS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Flight_from_Da mascus



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I




[81]



''Abd al-Rahman, Yahya and Bedr quit the village narrowly escaping the Abbasid assassins. Later, on the way south, Abbasid horsemen again caught up with the trio: Abd al-Rahman and his companions then threw themselves into the River Euphrates. While trying to swim across the dangerous Euphrates, Abd al-Rahman is said to have become separated from his brother Yahya, who began swimming back towards the horsemen, possibly from fear of drowning. The horsemen begged the escapers to return, promising that no harm would come to them. The 17th-century historian Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari poignantly described Abd al-Rahman's reaction as he implored Yahya to keep going: "O brother! Come to me, come to me!"[6] Yahya returned to the near shore, and was quickly dispatched by the horsemen. They cut the head off their prize, leaving Yahya's body to rot. Al-Maqqari quotes prior Muslim historians as having recorded that Abd al-Rahman said he was so overcome with fear at that moment, that once he made the far shore he ran until exhaustion overcame him.[7] Only he and Bedr were left to face the unknown.''


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FLIGHT FROM DAMASCUS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Flight_from_ Damascus



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I




[82]


''After barely escaping with their lives, Abd al-Rahman and Bedr continued south through Palestine, the Sinai, and then into Egypt. Abd al-Rahman had to keep a low profile as he traveled. It may be assumed that he intended to go at least as far as northwestern Africa (Maghreb), the land of his mother, which had been partly conquered by his Umayyad predecessors. The journey across Egypt would prove perilous. At the time, Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri was the semi-autonomous governor of Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia) and a former Umayyad client. The ambitious Ibn Habib, a member of the illustrious Fihrid family, had long sought to carve out Ifriqiya as a private dominion for himself. At first, he sought an understanding with the Abbasids, but when they refused his terms and demanded his submission, Ibn Habib broke openly with the Abbasids and invited the remnants of the Umayyad dynasty to take refuge in his dominions. Abd al-Rahman was only one of several surviving Umayyad family members to make their way to Ifriqiya at this time.But Ibn Habib soon changed his mind. He feared the presence of prominent Umayyad exiles in Ifriqiya, a family more illustrious than his own, might become a focal point for intrigue among local nobles against his own usurped powers. Around 755, believing he had discovered plots involving some of the more prominent Umayyad exiles in Kairouan, Ibn Habib turned against them. At the time, Abd al-Rahman and Bedr were keeping a low profile, staying in Kabylie, at the camp of a Nafza Berber chieftain friendly to their plight. Ibn Habib dispatched spies to look for the Umayyad prince. When Ibn Habib's soldiers entered the camp, the Berber chieftain's wife Tekfah hid Abd al-Rahman under her personal belongings to help him go unnoticed.[8] Once they were gone, Abd a-Rahman and Bedr immediately set off westwards.
In 755, Abd al-Rahman and Bedr reached modern-day Morocco near Ceuta.''


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/EXILE YEARS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Exile_years




ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I





[83]


'' Abbasid agents closed in on Abd al-Rahman and his family while they were hiding in a small village. He left his young son with his sisters and fled with Yahya. Accounts vary, but Bedr likely initially escaped with Abd ar-Rahman.''

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FLIGHT FROM DAMASCUS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Flight_from_Da mascus



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I







[84]



WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FIGHT FOR POWER


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Fight_for_powe r



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I




[85]


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FIGHT FOR POWER


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Fight_for_powe r



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I





[86]


''With this act, Abd ar-Rahman proclaimed himself the emir of al-Andalus''


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FIGHT FOR POWER


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Fight_for_powe r



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I





''He was finally reacquainted with his son Sulayman, whom he last saw weeping on the banks of the Euphrates with his sisters''


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/RULE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Rule




ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I





[87]



WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/RULE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Rule




ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I




[88]



WIKIPEDIA
ABBASID-CAROLINGIAN ALLIANCE/MILITARY ALLIANCE IN SPAIN


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abbasid%E2%80%93Carolingian_ alliance#Military_alliance_in_ Spain_.28777-778.29



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABBASID-CAROLINGIAN ALLIANCE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abbasid%E2%80%93Carolingian_ alliance




[89]



WIKIPEDIA
ABBASID-CAROLINGIAN ALLIANCE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abbasid%E2%80%93Carolingian_ alliance




[90]



WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN IBN HABIB AL-FIHRI

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_ibn_Habib_al-Fih ri




[91]


'' Ibn Habib then decided to revolt against the Abbasids and dropped the name of the Abbasid caliph from the Friday prayers.....''


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN IBN HABIB AL-FIHRI/RELATIONS WITH THE CALIPHS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_ibn_Habib_al-Fih ri#Relations_with_the_Caliphs




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN IBN HABIB AL-FIHRI

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_ibn_Habib_al-Fih ri




[92]


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN III/ASSUMPTION OF THE CALIPHATE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III#Assumption_ of_the_Caliphate




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN III


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III#Assumption_ of_the_Caliphate




WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba





[93]







''Despite such a tremendous victory, Abd al-Rahman had to continuously put down rebellions in al-Andalus.[15] Various Arab and Berber tribes fought each other for varying degrees of power, some cities tried to break away and form their own state, and even members of Abd al-Rahman's family tried to wrest power from him. During a large revolt, dissidents marched on Córdoba itself; However, Abd al-Rahman always managed to stay one step ahead, and crushed all opposition; as he always dealt severely with dissidence in al-Andalus.[16] However, this assumption needs to be in perspective, since in 756 he was in charge of a limited number of southern strongholds and he faced resistance to submit from other towns during the next 25 years, rather than revolts.''


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/RULE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Rule





ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I



WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/PROBLEMS IN THE UPPER MARCH


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Problems_in_th e_Upper_March




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I





[94]


''Despite all this turmoil in al-Andalus, Abd al-Rahman wanted to take the fight back east to Baghdad. Revenge for the massacre of his family at the hands of the Abbasids must surely have been the driving factor in Abd al-Rahman's war plans. However his war against Baghdad was put on hold by more internal problems. The city of Zaragoza on the Upper March remained out of reach of the Umayyad leader since the times of Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri, bidding for autonomy. Little could Abd al-Rahman have known that as he set off to settle matters in that northern city, his hopes of warring against Baghdad would be indefinitely put on hold.''


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/RULE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Rule



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I



[95]


WIKIPEDIA
ROMAN NUMERALS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roman_numerals




WIKIPEDIA

ARABIC NUMERALS/ADOPTION IN EUROPE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Arabic_numerals#Adoption_in_Eu rope


ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
ARABIC NUMERALS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Arabic_numerals




YOUTUBE.
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=1874s




[96]




YOUTUBE.
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=1874s




[97]



YOUTUBE.
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=1874s



[98]




YOUTUBE.
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=1874s




''He sponsored elaborate building programs, promoted agriculture, and even imported fruit trees and other plants from his former home. Orange trees still stand in the courtyard of the Mosque of Cordoba, a beautiful, if bittersweet reminder of the Umayyad exile.''



KHANACADEMY.ORG
THE GREAT MOSQUE OF CORDOBA


https://www.khanacademy.org/ humanities/ap-art-history/ early-europe-and-colonial- americas/ap-art-islamic-world- medieval/a/the-great-mosque- of-cordoba



[99]



KHANACADEMY.ORG
THE GREAT MOSQUE OF CORDOBA


https://www.khanacademy.org/ humanities/ap-art-history/ early-europe-and-colonial- americas/ap-art-islamic-world- medieval/a/the-great-mosque- of-cordoba






YOUTUBE.
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=1874s



MUSLIMHERITAGE
THE MOSQUE OF CORDOBA



http://www.muslimheritage.com/ article/mosque-cordoba





''
After the aforementioned period of conflict, Abd al-Rahman continued in his improvement of al-Andalus' infrastructure. He ensured roadways were begun, aqueducts were constructed or improved, and that a new mosque was well funded in his capital at Córdoba. Construction on what would in time become the world-famous Great Mosque of Córdoba was started circa the year 786.''


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/MILITARY, SOCIAL AND CONSTRUCTION 
WORKS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Military_and_s ocial.2C_and_constructions_wor ks



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I








[100]



''As was common during the years of Islamic expansion from Arabia, religious tolerance was practiced. Abd al-Rahman continued to allow Jews and Christians and other monotheistic religions to retain and practice their faiths. They did, however, have to pay a tribute tax for this privilege.''



WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/MILITARY, SOCIAL AND CONSTRUCTION 
WORKS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Military_and_s ocial.2C_and_constructions_wor ks



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I



[101]





''Construction on what would in time become the world-famous Great Mosque of Córdoba was started circa the year 786. Abd al-Rahman knew that one of his sons would one day inherit the rule of al-Andalus, but that it was a land torn by strife. In order to successfully rule in such a situation, Abd al-Rahman needed to create a reliable civil service and organize a standing army. He felt that he could not always rely on the local populace in providing a loyal army; and therefore bought a massive standing army consisting mainly of Berbers from North Africa[22]''


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/MILITARY, SOCIAL AND CONSTRUCTION 
WORKS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Military_and_ social.2C_and_constructions_ works



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I






[102]


'' Anglo-Saxon secular buildings in Britain were generally simple, constructed mainly using timber with thatch for roofing.''


WIKIPEDIA
ANGLO-SAXON ARCHITECTURE



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Anglo-Saxon_architecture




''Unfortunately for posterity, most Saxon buildings were constructed of wood with wattle and daub walls. The depredations of the Danes left very few of these flammable buildings standing. The only buildings the Anglo-Saxons tended to build in more permanent stone were their monasteries and churches.''

BRITAINEXPRESS.COM
ANGLO-SAXON ARCHITECTURE


http://www.britainexpress.com/ architecture/saxon.htm





[103]



WIKIPEDIA
RENAISSANCE




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Renaissance





[104]


YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE



https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=5201s






[105]



YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE



https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=5201s




''Arab logicians had inherited Greek ideas after they had invaded and conquered Egypt and the Levant. Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Spain and Sicily, which became important centers for this transmission of ideas. ''



WIKIPEDIA
TRANSMISSION OF THE GREEK CLASSICS/ARAB TRANSLATIONS
AND COMMENTARY


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Transmission_of_the_Greek_Clas sics#Arab_translations_and_com mentary



WIKIPEDIA
TRANSMISSION OF THE GREEK CLASSICS/WESTERN EUROPEAN RECEPTION OF GREEK IDEAS VIA
THE ARABIAN TRADITION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Transmission_of_the_Greek_Clas sics#Western_European_receptio n_of_Greek_ideas_via_the_Arabi an_tradition



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
TRANSMISSION OF THE GREEK CLASSICS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Transmission_of_the_Greek_Clas sics



[106]


''In the ninth and tenth centuries, Córdoba was “one of the most important cities in the history of the world.” In it, “Christians and Jews were involved in the Royal Court and the intellectual life of the city.”[17]Regarding Córdoba's importance, Reinhardt Dozy wrote:[18]
The fame of Córdoba penetrated even distant Germany: the Saxon nun Hroswitha, famous in the last half of the 10th century for her Latin poems and dramas, called it the Ornament of the World.
— Reinhardt DozyCórdoba had a prosperous economy with its “skilled artisans and agricultural infrastructure,” The manufactured goods for sale included “leather and metal work, glazed tiles and textiles.” The agricultural produce included fruits, vegetables, spices, herbs, and raw materials such as “cotton, flax and silk.”[19]
Córdoba was also famous as “a centre of learning.” Education was “taken seriously.” Al-Hakam II had a large library. Knowledge in the fields of “medicine, mathematics, astronomy, botany” exceeded the rest of Europe.[20]''




WIKIPEDIA
CORDOBA,ANDALUSIA/ISLAMIC RULE






https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ C%C3%B3rdoba,_Andalusia#Islami c_rule




ORIGINAL SOURCE




WIKIPEDIA
CORDOBA,ANDALUSIA




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ C%C3%B3rdoba,_Andalusia






''On May 25, 1085, Alfonso VI of Castile took Toledo and established direct personal control over the Moorish city from which he had been exacting tribute, ending the medieval Taifa's Kingdom of Toledo. This was the first concrete step taken by the combined kingdom of Leon-Castile in the Reconquista by Christian forces. After Castilian conquest, Toledo continued to be a major cultural centre; its Arab libraries were not pillaged, and a tag-team translation centre was established in which books in Arabic or Hebrew would be translated into Castilian by Muslim and Jewish scholars, and from Castilian into Latin by Castilian scholars, thus letting long-lost knowledge spread through Christian Europe again''






WIKIPEDIA
TOLEDO,SPAIN/MEDIEVAL TOLEDO AFTER THE RECONQUEST




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo,_Spain#Medieval_Toledo_ after_the_Reconquest




ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
TOLEDO,SPAIN


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo,_Spain








''Traditionally Toledo was a center of multilingual culture and had prior importance as a center of learning and translation, beginning in its era under Muslim rule. Numerous classical works of ancient philosophers and scientists that had been translated into Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age "back east" were well known in al-Andalus (Islamic-era Spain) such as those from the Neoplatonism school, Arist otleHippocratesGalenPtol emy, etc., as well as the works of ancient philosophers and scientists from Persia, India, and China;[1] these enabled Arabic-speaking populations at the time (both in the east and in "the west," or North Africa and the Iberian peninsula) to learn about many ancient classical disciplines that were generally inaccessible to the Christian parts of western Europe, and Arabic-speaking scientists in the eastern Muslim lands such as Ibn Sinaal-Kindial-Razi, and others, had added significant works to that ancient body of thought.
Some of the Arabic literature was also translated into LatinHebrew, and Ladino, such as that of Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides, Muslim sociologist-historian Ibn KhaldunCarthage citizen Cons tantine the African, or the Persian Al-Khwarizmi.[2]
Spain's multi-cultural richness beginning in the era of Umayyad dynasty rule in that land (711-1031) was one of the main reasons why European scholars were traveling to study there as early as the end of the 10th century.''






WIKIPEDIA
TOLEDO SCHOOL OF TRANSLATORS/BACKGROUND


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo_School_of_Translators#B ackground



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
TOLEDO SCHOOL OF TRANSLATORS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo_School_of_Translators





[107]






YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE



https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=5201s


''The University of al-Qarawiyyin, also written Al Quaraouiyine or Al-Karaouine (   Arabic: جامعة القرويين‎‎; Berber: ⵜⵉⵎⵣⴳⵉⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵍⵇⴰⵕⴰⵡⵉⵢⵢⵉⵏ; FrenchUniversit é Al Quaraouiyine), is a university located in FezMorocco. It is the oldest existing, continually operating and the first degree awarding educational institution in the world according to UNESCO and Guinness World Records[5][6] and is sometimes referred to as the oldest university.[7] The Al Quaraouiyine mosque-religious school / college was founded by Fatima al-Fihri in 859 with an associated school, or madrasa, which subsequently became one of the leading spiritual and educational centers of the historic Muslim world.''


WIKIPEDIA
UNIVERSITY OF AL QUARAOUIYINE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ University_of_Al_Quaraouiyine




[108]






YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE



https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=5201s



''On May 25, 1085, Alfonso VI of Castile took Toledo and established direct personal control over the Moorish city from which he had been exacting tribute, ending the medieval Taifa's Kingdom of Toledo. This was the first concrete step taken by the combined kingdom of Leon-Castile in the Reconquista by Christian forces. After Castilian conquest, Toledo continued to be a major cultural centre; its Arab libraries were not pillaged, and a tag-team translation centre was established in which books in Arabic or Hebrew would be translated into Castilian by Muslim and Jewish scholars, and from Castilian into Latin by Castilian scholars, thus letting long-lost knowledge spread through Christian Europe again''






WIKIPEDIA
TOLEDO,SPAIN/MEDIEVAL TOLEDO AFTER THE RECONQUEST




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo,_Spain#Medieval_Toledo_ after_the_Reconquest




ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
TOLEDO,SPAIN


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo,_Spain






[109]








WIKIPEDIA
TOLEDO SCHOOL OF TRANSLATORS/BACKGROUND


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo_School_of_Translators#B ackground



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
TOLEDO SCHOOL OF TRANSLATORS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo_School_of_Translators




YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE



https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=5201s




[110]




YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE



https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=5201s




[111]




YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE



https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=5201s







[112]




YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA



BLACKHISTORYSTUDIES.COM
15 THINGS YOU DIDN'T KNOW ABOUT THE MOORS OF SPAIN


http://www. blackhistorystudies.com/ resources/resources/15-facts- on-the-moors-in-spain/



[113]


WIKIPEDIA
ALGEBRA/ETYMOLOGY


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Algebra#Etymology




ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
ALGEBRA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Algebra




[114]


WIKIPEDIA
ARABIC NUMERALS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Arabic_numerals




[115]


''late 14c., "arithmetical symbol for zero," from Old French cifre "nought, zero," Medieval Latin cifra, with Spanish and Italian cifra, ultimately from Arabic sifr "zero," literally "empty, nothing," from safara "to be empty;" loan-translation of Sanskrit sunya-s "empty." The word came to Europe with Arabic numerals.''


ONLINE ETYMOLOGY DICTIONARY
CIPHER


http://www.etymonline.com/ index.php?term=cipher





[116]



YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA




[117]




YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA




[118]



WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM VIII, DUKE OF ACQUITAINE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_VIII,_Duke_of_ Aquitaine




[119]



WIKIPEDIA
BARBASTRO/HISTORY


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Barbastro#History




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
BARBASTRO


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Barbastro





[120]


WIKIPEDIA
RAMIRO I OF ARAGON



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ramiro_I_of_Aragon






[121]




YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE



https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=173s



''According to historic sources, William VIII, the father of William, brought to Poitiers hundreds of Muslim prisoners.[14] Trend admitted that the troubadours derived their sense of form and even the subject matter of their poetry from the Andalusian Muslims.[15] The hypothesis that the troubadour tradition was created, more or less, by William after his experience of Moorish arts while fighting with the Reconquista in Spain was also championed by Ramón Menéndez Pidal in the early 20th-century, but its origins go back to the Cinquecento and Giammaria Barbieri (died 1575) and Juan Andrés (died 1822). Meg Bogin, English translator of the female troubadors, also held this hypothesis, as did Idries Shah. Certainly "a body of song of comparable intensity, profanity and eroticism [existed] in Arabic from the second half of the 9th century onwards."[16]''


CLASSICAL ARAB MUSIC


http://www. classicalarabicmusic.com/ traditional%20arabic%20music. htm





[122]


''William's greatest legacy to history was not as a warrior but as a troubadour — a lyric poet employing the Romance vernacular language called Provençal or Occitan.He was the earliest troubadour whose work survives. Eleven of his songs survive (Merwin, 2002). The song traditionally numbered as the eighth (Farai chansoneta nueva) is of dubious attribution, since its style and language are significantly different (Pasero 1973, Bond 1982). Song 5 (Farai un vers, pos mi sonelh) has two significantly different versions in different manuscripts. The songs are attributed to him under his title as Count of Poitou (lo coms de Peitieus). The topics vary, treating sex, love, women, his own sexual and literary prowess, and feudal politics.''




WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM IX, DUKE OF ACQUITAINE/POETIC CAREER


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_IX,_Duke_of_Aquitaine# Poetic_career




ORIGINAL SOURCE


''Though his political and military achievements have a certain historical importance, he is best known as the earliest troubadour[1] — a vernacular lyric poet in the Occitan language — whose work survived.''


WIKIPEDIA
WILLIAM IX, DUKE OF ACQUITAINE



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_IX,_Duke_of_Aquitaine




[123]





WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN III


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III




[124]



WIKIPEDIA
MEDINA AZAHARA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Medina_Azahara






[125]


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN III/ASSUMPTION OF THE CALIPHATE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III#Assumption_ of_the_Caliphate





ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN III


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III





[126]



''The victors desecrated the tombs of the Umayyads in Syria, sparing only that of Umar II, and most of the remaining members of the Umayyad family were tracked down and killed. When Abbasids declared amnesty for members of the Umayyad family, eighty gathered to receive pardons, and all were massacred. One grandson of Hisham, Abd al-Rahman I, survived and established a kingdom in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) , proclaiming his family to be the Umayyad Caliphate revived.''

WIKIPEDIA
UMAYYAD CALIPHATE/ABBASID REVOLUTION


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate#Abbasid_Revo lution




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
UMAYYAD CALIPHATE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate







''Born near Damascus in Syria, Abd al-Rahman was the son of the Umayyad prince Mu'awiya ibn Hisham and a Berber mother, and thus the grandson of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malikcaliph from 724 to 743.[3][4] He was twenty when his family, the ruling Umayyads, were overthrown by the Abbasid Revolution in 748–750. Abd al-Rahman and a small part of his family fled Damascus, where the center of Umayyad power had been; people moving with him include his brother Yahya, his four-year-old son Sulayman, and some of his sisters, as well as his Greek freedman, Bedr.''


WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FLIGHT FROM DAMASCUS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Flight_from_Da mascus




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I



THE RULING OF ABD-AL-RAHMAN III [WHO PROCLAIMED
HIMSELF TO CALIPH] AND HIS DESCENDANTS WAS
THE CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA





WIKIPEDIA
THE CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba




[127]


YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE



https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=3100s



WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/UMAYYAD CALIPHS OF CORDOBA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba# Umayyad_Caliphs_of_C.C3. B3rdoba




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba



REMARK ASTRID ESSED:
HISHAM II [MENTIONED IN UNDERLYING WIKIPEDIA COMMENT
AND WHO ONLY RULED IN NAME]],
UNDER WHICH THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE WAS SWIFTLY DETORIATING
WAS THE GRANDSON OF ABD-AL-RAHMAN III, WHO PROCLAIMED
HIMSELD CALIPH AND HAD A FLOURISHING REIGN


ABL-AL-HAKAM II [FIRST NAMED CALIPH IN UNDERLYING WIKIPEDIA COMMENT] WAS
THE SON OF ABD-AL-RAHMAN III AND THE FATHER OF HISHAM II
''The death of al-Hakam II in 976 marked the beginning of the end of the caliphate. Before his death, al-Hakam named his 10-year-old son Hisham II (976–1008) successor. Although the child was ill-equipped to be caliph, since he had sworn an oath of obedience to him Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir (top adviser to al-Hakam, also known as Almanzor) pronounced him caliph. Ibn Abi Aamir was the boy's guardian, exercising Hisham's powers until he matured. He isolated Hisham in Córdoba while systematically eradicating opposition to his own rule,[9] allowing Berbers from Africa to migrate to al-Andalus to increase his base of support. He, his son Abd al-Malik (al-Muzaffar, after his 1008 death) and his brother (Abd al-Rahman) retained the power nominally held by Caliph Hisham. However, during a raid on the Christian north a revolt tore through Córdoba and Abd al-Rahman never returned.[10][11]
The decision to name Hisham II caliph shifted power from an individual to his advisers. The title of caliph became symbolic, without power or influence. The Caliphate would be rocked by violence, with rivals claiming to be the new caliph. The last Córdoban Caliph was Hisham III (1027–1031). Beset by factionalism, the caliphate crumbled in 1031 into a number of independent taifas.''






WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/FALL


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba#Fall





ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba





[128]


WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba





[129]


YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=3171s





[130]




YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=3171s





[131]


'' The Caliphate would be rocked by violence, with rivals claiming to be the new caliph. The last Córdoban Caliph was Hisham III (1027–1031). Beset by factionalism, the caliphate crumbled in 1031 into a number of independent taifas.''

WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/FALL


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba#Fall




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba



[132]



''In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from Arabic: طائفة‎‎    ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the UmayyadCaliphate of Córdoba in 1031. Most of these were emirates, though there was one oligarchy.''


WIKIPEDIA
TAIFA



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa




[133]


WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/LIST OF RULERS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba# List_of_rulers



WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/UMAYYAD EMIRS OF CORDOBA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba# Umayyad_Emirs_of_C.C3.B3rdoba




WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/UMAYYAD CALIPHS OF CORDOBA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba# Umayyad_Caliphs_of_C.C3. B3rdoba




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba


[134]


''According to historians, the emirs and caliphs comprising the Umayyad dynasty in Al-Andalus were the sons of concubine slaves (almost all Iberians from the north of the peninsula).''


WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/LIST OF RULERS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba#List _of_rulers



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba


[135]


WIKIPEDIA
EMIRATE OF CORDOBA [756-929]


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emirate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba



''The Caliphate of Córdoba (Arabic: خلافة قرطبة‎‎; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty. The state, with the capital in Córdoba, existed from 929 to 1031. The region was formerly dominated by the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba (756–929). The period was characterized by an expansion of trade and culture, and saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture. In January 929, Abd-ar-Rahman III proclaimed himself caliph (Arabic: خليفة) of Córdoba[2] in place of his original title, Emir of Córdoba (Arabic: أمير قرطبة 'Amīr Qurṭuba). He was a member of the Umayyad dynasty, which had held the title of Emir of Córdoba since 756.''




WIKIPEDIA
CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA [929-1031]


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba






[136]


''In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from Arabic: طائفة‎‎    ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the UmayyadCaliphate of Córdoba in 1031. Most of these were emirates, though there was one oligarchy.''


WIKIPEDIA
TAIFA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa




''One of the recurring themes of Islamic history is that disunity in the Muslim world has consistently led to weakness and the decline of one-powerful empires. One of the most clear examples of this was the taifa period of al-Andalus – Muslim Spain – in the 11th century. In the 700s, al-Andalus was established as a powerful and prosperous province under the Umayyads. After the Abbasid revolution of 750, al-Andalus became an autonomous state under the sovereignty of what remained of the Umayyad dynasty.Al-Andalus reached its peak around the year 1000. The Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba was the most powerful state in Western Europe politically as well as economically. The artistic, academic, and social achievements of al-Andalus rivaled that of any other part of the Muslim world at that time, including the advanced civilizations in Iraq, Egypt, and Persia. However, within 50 years, all that would change. Al-Andalus would go from being one powerful united state, to one that is divided, vulnerable to invasion, and politically dependent on outsiders. This time, known as the Taifa Period, sowed the seeds for the decline of al-Andalus and its eventual fall in 1492.''





LOST ISLAMIC HISTORY
DISUNITY IN AL-ANDALUS-THE TAIFA PERIOD


http://lostislamichistory.com/ disunity-in-al-andalus-the-tai fa-period/





[137]




YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=4706s





[138]





YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=4706s


''Reversing the trend of the Umayyad period, when the Christian kingdoms of the north often had to pay tribute to the Caliph, the disintegration of the Caliphate left the rival Muslim kingdoms much weaker than their Christian counterparts, particularly the Castilian–Leonese monarchy, and had to submit to them, paying tributes known as parias.''


WIKIPEDIA
TAIFA/DECLINE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa#Decline




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
TAIFA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa







[139]



YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA




[140]

WIKIPEDIA
RECONQUISTA




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Reconquista








[141]




WIKIPEDIA
TOLEDO,SPAIN/MEDIEVAL TOLEDO
AFTER THE RECONQUEST




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo,_Spain#Medieval_Toledo_ after_the_Reconquest




ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
TOLEDO,SPAIN




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo,_Spain






[142]




''In the High Middle Ages, the fight against the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula became linked to the fight of the whole of Christendom. The Reconquista was originally a mere war of conquest. It only later underwent a significant shift in meaning toward a religiously justified war of liberation (see the Augustinian concept of a Just War). The papacy and the influential Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy not only justified the acts of war but actively encouraged Christian knights to seek armed confrontation with Moorish "infidels" instead of with each other.From the 11th century onwards indulgences were granted: In 1064 Pope Alexander II promised the participants of an expedition against Barbastro (Tagr al-Andalus, Aragon) a collective indulgence 30 years before Pope Urban II called the First Crusade. Papal interest in Christian-Muslim relations in the peninsula are not without precedent — Popes Leo IV (847–855), John VIII (872–882) and John XIX (1024–33) are all known to have displayed substantial interest in the region. Not until 1095 and the Council of Clermont did the Reconquista amalgamate the conflicting concepts of a peaceful pilgrimage and armed knight-errantry. But the papacy left no doubt about the heavenly reward for knights fighting for Christ (militia Christi): in a letter, Urban II tried to persuade the reconquistadores fighting at Tarragona to stay in the Peninsula rather than joining the armed pilgrimage to conquer Jerusalem, saying that their contribution for Christianity was equally important. The pope promised them the same indulgences that he had promised to those who chose to join the First Crusade.''




WIKIPEDIA
RECONQUISTA/EXPANSION INTO THE CRUSADES AND
MILITARY ORDERS




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Reconquista#Expansion_into_the _Crusades_and_military_orders




ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
RECONQUISTA




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Reconquista










ALMORAVIDS




''Due to their military weakness, taifa princes appealed for North African warriors to come fight Christian kings on two occasions. The Almoravids were invited after the fall of Toledo (1085), and the Almohads after the fall of Lisbon (1147). These warriors did not in fact help the taifa emirs but rather annexed their lands to their own North African empires.''




WIKIPEDIA
TAIFA/DECLINE




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa#Decline






ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
TAIFA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa








YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE




https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=4706s








[143]






YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA



''In 1086 Yusuf ibn Tashfin was invited by the Muslim taifa princes of Al-Andalus in the Iberian Peninsula to defend their territories from the encroachment of Alfonso VI, King of León and Castile. In that year, Yusuf ibn Tashfin crossed the Strait of Gibraltar to Algeciras, and defeated Castile at the Battle of az-Zallaqah (Battle of Sagrajas)''


WIKIPEDIA
ALMORAVID DYNASTY/SOUTHERN IBERIA AND THE NORTHERN
WING


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Almoravid_dynasty#Southern_ Iberia_and_the_Northern_Wing



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
ALMORAVID DYNASTY


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Almoravid_dynasty




[144]




YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA




[145]


LIST OF THE MAIN MOORISH KINGDOMS FROM 756 UNTILL
1492, THE END OF THE MOORISH RULE IN AL-ANDALUS



WIKIPEDIA
TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA/
THE UMAYYAD EMIRATE FROM 756 UNTILL 929

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#The _Umayyad_Emirate_of_C.C3.B3rdo ba_.28756.E2.80.93929.29



WIKIPEDIA
TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA/
THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE FROM 929 UNTILL 1031


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#The _Umayyad_Caliphate_.28929.E2.8 0.931031.29



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula




AFTER THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMAYYAD DYNASTY IN
1031, A FRAGMENTATION IN LITTLE KINGDOMS OR CITY STATES
THE ONLY STRONG KINGDOM, STILL EXISTING, IS THE
EMIRATE OF GRANADA, FROM 1238, UNTILL IT IS CONQUERED IN 1492 BY
THE REYES CATOLICOS, FERDINAND AND ISABELLA




WIKIPEDIA

TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA/
POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#Pol itical_fragmentation_.281031.E 2.80.931130.29


WIKIPEDIA
TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula




POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION, THE TAIFA KINGDOMS




''In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from Arabic: طائفة‎‎      ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, usually an emirate, though there was one oligarchy, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.''

WIKIPEDIA
TAIFA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa



WIKIPEDIA
LIST OF TAIFAS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa#List_of_taifas



FURTHER POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION


WIKIPEDIA
ALMORAVID DYNASTY


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Almoravid_dynasty



WIKIPEDIA
ALMOHAD CALIPHATE



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Almohad_Caliphate


WIKIPEDIA
MARINID DYNASTY


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Marinid_dynasty


THE ONLY LASTING AND RELATIVELY STRONG KINGDOM
WAS THE KINGDOM OF GRANADA, FROM 1248 UNTILL
1492, WHEN IT WAS BESIEGED AND DEFEATED BY
FERDINAND AND ISABELLA [ARAGON/CASTILE],
ENDING THE MOORISH RULE IN AL-ANDALUS


WIKIPEDIA

EMIRATE OF GRANADA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emirate_of_Granada




LIST OF THE MAIN CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS IN  AL-ANDALUS



WIKIPEDIA
KINGDOM OF ASTURIAS



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Asturias



WIKIPEDIA
KINGDOM OF NAVARRE [PAMPLONA]


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Navarre




WIKIPEDIA
KINGDOM OF GALICIA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Galicia



WIKIPEDIA
KINGDOM OF LEON


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Le%C3%B3n



WIKIPEDIA
KINGDOM OF CASTILE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Castile



WIKIPEDIA
KINGDOM OF ARAGON


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Aragon





''With the fall of Córdoba in 1236, most of the south quickly fell under Christian rule and the Emirate of Granada became a tributary state of the Kingdom of Castile two years later.''


WIKIPEDIA
AL-ANDALUS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Andalus




YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=4706s






[146]




YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA




''During the Spanish Reconquista, Córdoba was captured by King Ferdinand III of Castile on 29 June 1236, after a siege of several months.''


WIKIPEDIA
CORDOBA,ANDALUSIA/MODERN HISTORY


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ C%C3%B3rdoba,_Andalusia#Modern _history




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
CORDOBA, ANDALUSIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ C%C3%B3rdoba,_Andalusia




''In 1238,[46] King James I of Aragon, with an army composed of AragoneseCatalans, Navarrese and crusaders from the Order of Calatrava, laid siege to Valencia and on 28 September obtained a surrender.[47]Fifty thousand Moors were forced to leave.


WIKIPEDIA
VALENCIA/CHRISTIAN RECONQUEST


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Valencia#Christian_reconquest




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
VALENCIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Valencia




''In 1247, the Christian King Ferdinand III of Castile and Leon began the conquest of Andalusia. After conquering Jaén and Córdoba, he seized the villages surrounding the city, Carmona Lora del Rio and Alcalá del Rio, and kept a standing army in the vicinity, the siege lasting for fifteen months. The decisive action took place in May 1248 when Ramon Bonifaz sailed up the Guadalquivir and severed the Triana bridge that made the provisioning of the city from the farms of the Aljarafe possible. The city surrendered on 23 November 1248.[10]''

WIKIPEDIA

SEVILLE/CASTILIAN RULE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Seville#Castilian_rule



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
SEVILLE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Seville


[147]




WIKIPEDIA
EMIRATE OF GRANADA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emirate_of_Granada



[148]




''With the fall of Córdoba in 1236, most of the south quickly fell under Christian rule and the Emirate of Granada became a tributary state of the Kingdom of Castile two years later.''


WIKIPEDIA
AL-ANDALUS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Andalus




YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=4706s





[149]


WIKIPEDIA
GRANADA/RECONQUISTA BY THE CHRISTIAN SPANISH
AGAINST MUSLIMS AND THE 16TH CENTURY


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada#Reconquista_by_the_ Christian_Spanish_against_ Muslims_and_the_16th_century




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
GRANADA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada



WIKIPEDIA
FERDINAND II OF ARAGON


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ferdinand_II_of_Aragon




WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA I OF CASTILE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_I_of_Castile




''The title of "Catholic King and Queen" was bestowed on Ferdinand and Isabella by Pope Alexander VI in 1494,[2] in recognition of their defence of the Catholic faith within their realms.''


WIKIPEDIA
CATHOLIC MONARCHS [LOS REYES CATOLICOS]


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Catholic_Monarchs




''Abu `Abdallah Muhammad XII (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد الثاني عشر‎‎ Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad al-thānī ‘ashar) (c. 1460 – c. 1533), known to the Castilians as Boabdil (a Spanish rendering of the name Abu Abdullah), was the twenty-second and last Nasrid ruler of Granada in Iberia.''


WIKIPEDIA
MUHAMMAD XII OF GRANADA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_XII_of_Granada






[150]


YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA




WIKIPEDIA
EXPULSION OF THE MORISCOS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Expulsion_of_the_Moriscos





''Increasing oppression of the Moors—now known as Moriscos or "New Christians"—led to the Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1568–71). After the defeat of the Moors, which was not easy, almost all the Moriscos of the former Kingdom of Granada were exiled to other parts of Spain.''


WIKIPEDIA
GRANADA WAR/CONSEQUENCES


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada_War#Consequences




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
GRANADA WAR


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada_War




''Responding to the rebellion of 1501, the Castilian Crown rescinded the Alhambra Decree treaty, and mandated that Granada's Muslims must convert or emigrate. Under the 1492 Alhambra Decree, Spain's Jewish population, unlike the Muslims, had already been forced to convert under threat of expulsion or even execution, becoming Marranos (meaning "pigs" in Spanish), or Catholics of Jewish descent. Many of the elite Muslim class subsequently emigrated to North Africa.''


WIKIPEDIA
GRANADA/RECONQUISTA BY THE CHRISTIAN SPANISH AGAINST
MUSLIMS AND THE 16TH CENTURY


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada#Reconquista_by_the_ Christian_Spanish_against_ Muslims_and_the_16th_century




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
GRANADA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada





[151]



Under the 1492 Alhambra Decree, Spain's Jewish population, unlike the Muslims, had already been forced to convert under threat of expulsion or even execution, becoming Marranos (meaning "pigs" in Spanish), or Catholics of Jewish descent. Many of the elite Muslim class subsequently emigrated to North Africa.''


WIKIPEDIA
GRANADA/RECONQUISTA BY THE CHRISTIAN SPANISH AGAINST
MUSLIMS AND THE 16TH CENTURY


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada#Reconquista_by_the_ Christian_Spanish_against_ Muslims_and_the_16th_century




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
GRANADA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada





[152]




''Modern population genetics generally assume Moriscos to have had both significant Iberian and North African ancestry, even if, after centuries of presence and intermarriage in the Iberian peninsula they were unlikely to differ significantly in ethnic terms from the wider Spanish population.''


WIKIPEDIA
EXPULSION OF MORISCOS AND POPULATION GENETICS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Expulsion_of_the_Moriscos#Expu lsion_of_Moriscos_and_populati on_genetics




ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA
EXPULSION OF THE MORISCOS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Expulsion_of_the_Moriscos




YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA





[153]





YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA




WIKIPEDIA
TRANSMISSION OF THE GREEK CLASSICS/WESTERN EUROPEAN
RECEPTION OF GREEK IDEAS VIA THE ARABIAN TRADITION



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Transmission_of_the_Greek_ Classics#Western_European_ reception_of_Greek_ideas_via_ the_Arabian_tradition




ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA
TRANSMISSION OF THE GREEK CLASSICS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Transmission_of_the_Greek_ Classics




WIKIPEDIA
RENASSANCE



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Renaissance





[154]


WEBSITE ASTRID ESSED
WARS OF THE ROSES


https://www.astridessed.nl/?s= Wars+of+the+Roses



THE WARS OF THE ROSES/RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK/
THE CLAIMS TO THE THRONE OF LANCASTER AND YORK
ASTRID ESSED
22 JANUARY 2015


https://www.astridessed.nl/ the-wars-of-the-rosesrichard- duke-of-yorkthe-claims-to-the- throne-of-lancaster-and-york/




THE WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES/TRAVEL
TO THE PAST
ASTRID ESSED
3 FEBRUARY 2015


https://www.astridessed.nl/ the-wars-of-the-rosescauses- of-the-wars-of-the-rosesa- travel-to-the-past/


THE WARS OF THE ROSES/LANCASTER AND YORK/USURPATION
AND THE RIGHT TO THE THRONE THROUGH FEMALES
ASTRID ESSED
17 FEBRUARY 2015

https://www.astridessed.nl/ the-wars-of-the- roseslancaster-and- yorkusurpation-and-the-right- to-the-throne-through-females- 2/



THE WARS OF THE ROSES/THE PRINCES OF THE TOWER/
SUSAN HIGGINBOTHAM/HISTORY REFRESHED/''IF MARGARET, WHY NOT CECILY''/SOME COMMENTS
ASTRID ESSED
24 FEBRUARY 2015


https://www.astridessed.nl/ the-wars-of-the-rosesthe- princes-in-the-towersusan- higginbothamhistory- refreshedif-margaret-why-not- cecilysome-comments/



[155]


WIKIPEDIA
ISABELLA OF FRANCE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France