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Book Review: Isabella and the strange death of Edward II/Comments on Kathryn Warner

maandag 1 mei 2017
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BOOK REVIEW: ISABELLA AND THE STRANGE DEATH OF EDWARDII/COMMENTS ON SOME HISTORICAL REMARKS OF KATHRYN WARNER

FOLLOWING:THE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL SPAIN/AL-ANDALUS
Dear Readers,
A silly remark of author and historianKathryn Warner [EdwardthesecondBlogspot]gives me the opportunity to takeyou on a travel to the past, again.This time to Moorish ruled Spain in the Middle Ages.Come with me..........
SEE ALSO


https://www.astridessed.nl/book-review-isabella-and-the-strange-death-of-edward-iicomments-on-some-remarks-of-kathryn-warneredwardthesecomdblogspot-com/


Here I am again, taking you on a travel to the past.This time commenting on some remarks of Kathryn Warner, historian and authorof ''Edward II, the Unconventional King'' and [Edward II's wife]Isabella of France, the Rebel Queen.She is also known as blogger of''EdwardthesecondBlogspot.com, where intersting facts about thelife and reign of King Edward II are to be found.
I repeat what I said before:Warner is a tough scientific investigator and has a great factualknowledge about the first half of the fourtheenth century English history,but much weaker in her interpretations and some assumptions.
Therefore I've criticized her recently on her blog, which she deleted.See my earlier comment:


https://www.astridessed.nl/the -she-wolf-of-france-by-maurice -druonreaction-on-the-comments -of-kathryn-warneredwardthesec ondblogspot/

Of course she has the liberty to delete my reaction, or notplace it at all, but I think it a bit silly, in those Internet times.
Moreover I expect from a scholar, not to be afraid for well argumentedcritics.But that's her business.

I wonder, whether she publishes my new [underlying] comment on her blogor not, but that's not important.More important is to enrich my readers, you, with a new and interestingaspect of history, which is often neglected:
The great influence of the Moorish rule in Europe, especiallySpain.Recommended:The documentary of Bettany Hughes''When the Moors ruled in Europe'' [1]

See by the way my comment on Warner's remarks right under this article.

A

THE ETHNIC/DNA MOORISH INFLUENCE ON SPAIN
WARNERS COMMENTS/HER BLOG:''EDWARD II: BOOK REVIEW: ISABELLA AND THE STRANGE DEATHOF EDWARD II
SEE
http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2013/06/book-review-isabe lla-and-strange-death.html

In this post on her blog, Warner gives a book review of PaulDogerty's book [ Dogerty is a famous historian and writer] [2]''Isabella and the strange death of Edward II'' [3]
I didn't read the book, so I can't judge all the comments Warner made,although some [which I can judje without reading the book, due tomy historical knowlegde] certainly make sense.
But she made one silly remark, which was serious enough to becriticized!
She wrote:
'The chroniclers attest to her loveliness, to her beautiful blonde hair, which she inherited from her father, Philip le Bel, and her slightly arabic [sic] features from her mother Johanna of Navarre''......
 3) The colour of Isabella's hair is not stated anywhere; neither are her 'slightly arabic', written with a small 'a' for some weird reason, features, whatever 'slightly Arabic features' may be and how they came to exist in a woman, Joan of Navarre, who was of mostly French and northern European, partly Spanish, origin. '' [4]
''
So the mother of Isabella of France [Isabella of France was the daughter of the French KingPhilip IV,  wife of the English King Edward II and mother of King Edward III] [5], called Joan of Navarre [6], was partly of Spanish origin and could not have had Arabic features?In the 14th century?
COMPLETE NONSENSE!

Because as you may know, the Moors [Berbers/Arabs] ruled inSpain from 711 untill 1492.Over nearly the whole of Spain in 720 [7].Then little by little they were droven back, first under leadership ofthe one surviving [later there were more to come]christian Kingdom of Asturias. [8]But still controlling the major part of Spain [9], during  the dynasty of the Umayyad, which ruled nearly 300 years in Al Andalus[name for Moorish-muslim Spain], from 756 untill 1031,bringing al Andalus a great civilization, wealth and intellectual knowledge. [10]To be explained:The Umayyad dynasty was divided in the period of the Emirate of Cordoba,from 756-929, and the Caliphate of Cordoba, 929-1031, but yet thesame dynasty [11]After which the Moorish Kingdom fragmented in little Kingdoms [also called''Taifa Kingdoms''] , which fought
against each other and the northern christian forces [12], untill the defeat of Granada, in 1492 , which completed the reconquista. [13]


SO:
The Moors ruled over Spain LONGER THAN 700 YEARS and there wouldnot have been any mixture between them and the original Visigothicpopulation?
NONSENSE!
Because that's what Warner is impying.What a nearly stupid remark for a medieval historian!See my comments on Warner's remarks under my piece, beforethe Notes

B

THE ETHNIC/DNA MOORISH INFLUENCE ON SPAIN
INTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIANDYNASTIES, AND OTHER SOCIAL CLASSES



There are proofs of the  silliness of Warner's remarks:
See what scientists say:


  • The Spanish population may harbor some African-related admixture representing a fourth wave of migration into Europe, but affecting Spain much more than the other groups. The Spanish population shows an African admixture of 14.8% (12.6% Mozabite and 2.2% Mbuti/Yoruba), confirming that gene flow from Sub-Saharan or North African populations has occurred in the Spanish sample.[56]''
  • [14]





AND

''In terms of paternal Y-Chromosome DNA, recent studies coincide in that Iberia has the greatest presence of the typically Northwest African Y-chromosome haplotype marker E-M81 in Europe.[26][27] as well as Haplotype Va.[36][37] Estimates of Y-Chromosome ancestry vary, with a 2008 study published in the American Journal of Human Genetics using 1140 samples from throughout the Iberian peninsula, giving a proportion of 10.6% North African ancestry.[29][29][30][31] A similar 2009 study of Y-chromosome with 659 samples from Portugal, 680 from Northern Spain, 37 samples from Andalusia, 915 samples from mainland Italy, and 93 samples from Sicily found significally higher levels of North African male ancestry in Spain, Sicily and Portugal (7.7%, 7.1% and 7.5% respectively) than in Italy (1.7%).[38]'' [15]


Another proof is the Arab origins of some of the Spanish Kings:

For example, the second wife of the Spanish King Fruela II of Asturias,was Urraca bint [daughter of] Abd Allah.She was the daughter of the governor of Tuleda, member of theBanu Qasi, a Mullawad [mixture of Berber, Arab and Iberian origin] Hispano dynasty. [16]Two centuries later, there was a Queen Uracca of Leon, appartenly from darkcomplexion, mother of King Alphonso VII, who showeda slightly coloured compexion, inherited of his mother of course. [17]
AND CREME ON THE CAKE!
This coloured Uracca of Leon [and Castile] was a far ancestor of Queen IsabellaI of Castile, who would defeat thelast Moorish Kingdom,the Kingdom of Granada in 1492........ [18]See the list of Castilian momarchs. [19]I have checked, whether the line of descent, from Uracca to Isabella,was valid! Control for yourself! [20]
So coming to women of Spanish origin and Moorish [Arab]descent.See the foolishness of the remark of Kathryn Warner about Isabella ofFranceI will repeat it, again for you to catch up with the direct cause I wrote this piece:''The colour of Isabella's hair is not stated anywhere; neither are her 'slightly arabic', written with a small 'a' for some weird reason, features, whatever 'slightly Arabic features' may be and how they came to exist in a woman, Joan of Navarre, who was of mostly French and northern European, partly Spanish, origin. '' [21]
SO:
There WAS admixture and intermarriage between Muslimand Christian dynasties, as well there was admixture and intermarriagebetween nobility and commoners.Also Berber [and Arab] military commanders married christianSpanish women.
Mostly it were Berber-Arab men, who married christian-Spanishwomen.But it happened also, that christian-Spanish men marriedArab[Berber] women. [22]This intermarriage was between kings [emirs], nobility and commoners. [23]

An example of the marriage of a Moorish woman in a christian royaldynasty I already mentioned:
Uracca [NOT of course Queen Uracca of Castile of Leon],the wife of the Spanish King Fruela II of Asturias.She was the daughter of the governor of Tuleda, member of theBanu Qasi, a Mullawad [mixture of Berber, Arab and Iberian origin] Hispano dynasty. [24]
However, an example of Spanish descent in the Moorish royal dynasty wasKing Abd-al Rahman III, a king fromthe dynasty of the Ummayad [25], who proclaimed himselfas Caliph of Cordoba [26].He was the grandson of Emir Abdullah ibn [son of] Muhammad al Umawi [27].The father of Abd-al-Rahman III [who was no Emir, Abd-al-Rahman was thesuccessor of his grandfather] was Muhammad, and his mother a christianslave girl and concubine, Muzna or Muzayna. [28, Wikipedia] His paternal grandmother was also a Christian, but of roytalblood, the royal infanta [princess] Onneca Fortunez, daughterof king Fortun Garces of Pamplona, who was made captive. [29]Abd-al-Rahman III was described as:having
''.. white skin, blue eyes and attractive face; good looking, although somewhat sturdy and stout''[30]

I think this is enough proof for the admicture of African DNA in theSpanish-Iberian [Iberian, a term used for Spanish in the Middle Ages],as the follishness of the remarks of Kathryn Warner.As a historian, she should know better.



B
I
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE/[SPAIN]/HISTORY/THE CIVILIZATION THEY BROUGHT TOEUROPE
HISTORY/CONQUEST/CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
First:For the period of the Moorish rule, I refer to Spain as [post]Visigothic Spain.But in historical literature, Spain is often called''The Iberian peninsula'' also.
Second:Readers, realize, that when I write about Spain, conqueredby the Moors, it also consists Portugal!

Third:The Moorish conquest of Spain was not just an action ofBerber troops, but ordered and orchestrated by the great MuslimArab Caliphate, under the ruling Umayyad dynasty, which stretched,at the time of the conquest of Spain, from Asia [the Indusriver in India], Persia, the Middle East [the former Byzantine Empire,Syria, Jordan, Libanon], till the whole of North Africa. [31]

Further Readers, it is important for you to realize, that through thewhole period of the Moorish rule, christians lived in MoorishKingdoms, as Moors lived in christian kingdoms.[32]That happened generally in relative peace.Many christians took over the Arab language and cultureand converted to Islam and there are no signs, thatthere was any pressure in such conversion. [33]


 CORDOBA, CAPITAL CITY OF AL ANDALUS

The intermarriage and admixture with the Spanish [Iberian, postVisigoths]is interesting [34], but predictable, because of their 700 years rule.Far more interesting is the civilization, the intellectual knowledge,the art they brought to Europe.
First a brief history

Moorish-muslim Spain was called by the Moors [Berbers and Arabs]''Al Andalus'', which means ''the land of theVandals'' [Vandals were referred to the Visigoths, the population of Spain,conquered by the Berber military forces] [35]Capital city of al-Andalus was Cordoba [since 717] [36], that was to become a center of great intellectual knowledge,
with a famous University and 70 libraries, visited by scholars accrosswhole Europe. [37]
The Moorish rulers of Andalus were granted the rank of Emir by theUmayyad Caliph Al-Walid I in Damascus [38], on whose orders Tariq ibnZayid conquered Spain [al-Andalus] with 7000 Berber military forces. [39]Later more about the relationship with Damascus.
So Berber forces beat the last Visigoth king [40]
Later, commander Tariq was joined by Musa bin Nusayr, general and governor underEmir Walid I, who landed in Spain with an army  of 18,000 Berbers and Arabs[41]It took the Moors only four years to conquer Spain, probably due to thefact, that the Visigothic realm was already desintegrating. [42]
INTERESTING FACT:Gibraltar is called after commander Tariq, because it is theSpanish derivation of the Arabic name ''Jabal Tariq'' [mountain ofTariq] [43]

BATTLE OF TOURS [POITIERS]/TURNING POINT OF THEMOORISH EMPIRE IN EUROPE
But the Moors advanced!They marched through Francia [the pre Carolingian France] [44]and occupying half of France [45], were defeated by Charles Martel,major domus [46] of the Merovingian king [47] and the de facto ruler[48], as the father of the first Carolingian king Pepin the Short [49]and grandfather of Charlemagne [50]
That decisive battle was the Battle of Tours [51] [formerly calledthe Battle of Poitiers].
It is often seen as a turning point of history and it was commonly assumed,that were the Moorish troops succesful, they could have easily crossedover the channel and conquered and converse England. [52]
II
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE/STRIKING FACTS
THE CONVERSION OF JOHN LACKLAND, KING OF ENGLAND,TO THE ISLAM?
About 370 years after the battle of Tours, there was a certain moment, that England could have turned in an Islamic State!
Yes, at first it seemed unbelievable to me, but according to somesources, the English King John Lackland [53], brother and successorto Crusade King Richard I [Lion Heart] [54], should have considered conversionto the Islam. [55]
Background was a serious conflict with Pope Innocvent III, which endedin an interdict of England [56], as the excommunication of John Lackland. [57]To save himself from this dangerous situation [an interdict and excommunicationwould eventually lead to chaos in the country and isolation from the otherEuropean christian countries], in desperation, King John sent envoys toal-Nasir, asking for help.In return, John  offered to convert to Islam and turn England into a MuslimState.Caliph Nasir was said to be disgusted by John;s ''groveling plea'' and sent the envoys away. [58]
Is it historically true or not?That's not certain, but it is interesting to speculate:What if..........
III
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE/THE MOORISH CONSOLIDATION OF POWERIN SPAINTHE COMING OF THE UMAYYAD DYNASTY OF CORDOBA
I wrote it before:The invasion of Spain, Medieval Hispania [or Iberia] [59] and Francia [60] was led bythe Umayyad dynasty (Arabic: بنو أمية banū umayya / الأمويون al-umawiyyūn‎‎ also "Umawi") [61], the first dynasty of caliphs [civil and religious rulers] after the reign of the Rashidun caliphs [62] ended. The Umayyad Caliphate, at the time of the Battle of Tours, was perhaps the world's foremost military power. Great expansion of the Caliphate occurred under the reign of the Umayyads.
Muslim armies pushed east across Persia and west across North Africa through the late 7th century. [63] 
From 711 untill 762, with the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty withAbd-al-rahman as the first Emir, it was a time of conquest [of Spain]military expansion in France and fighting for power. [64]


THE UMMAYAD EMIRATE/THE COMINGOF ABD-AL-RAHMAN/A SUCCES STORY
And then came Abd-al-Rahman, who became Abd-al-Rahman I:
He had come a long way, from Syria, via North Africa and was a member of theDamascus royal dynasty, the Umayyad. [65]

His story is fascinating, but I can't tell it without a littleexplanation of the political situation, as the relations betweenAl-Andalus and the Umayyad.
BACKGROUND OF ABD-AL-RAHMAN/THE DAMASCUS UMAYYADCALIPHATE
To understand the story of Abd-al-Rahman I is to understandthe close ties between al-Andalus and the great muslim Empire,then ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, to which Abd-al-Rahman belonged.As told before, The Umayyad stretched from the territories in the east untill Persia, inthe Middle East, the greatest part of the Byzantine Empire and North Africa, from which al-Andalus was conquered [66], under the order ofthe Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I in Damascus. [67]
SO IN FACT, AL-ANDALUS WAS PART OF THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE,and the al-Andalus rulers were bound to pay respect to the Ummayad caliphs.
The populations of the conquered territories, as well by the predecessing Rashidun Caliphatesee below], as the Umayyads, stretching from Persia untill North Africa, were conversed to Islam.
CALIPHATES
There were a number of Arab Caliphates [better said ''Muslim'', because later Caliphates were not Arab], [68], with the Rashidun Caliphate to begin with [69]The Rashidun Caliphate, which started after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, founder of the Islam, [70] was the first Caliphate, an impressive Empire [to usethat word for a while], which stretched untill Persia [Iran],in the North, Byzantine Syria, Anatolia [later Turkey], the otherMiddle Eastern countries and in the West, a great part of North Africa. [71]

The period we are interested in, however, is the  second Caliphate,the Umayyad Caliphate [72], the original royal dynasty of Abd-al-Rahman..[73]The main power base of the Ummayad Caliphate was in Syria, itscapital was Damascus, but shortly, from 744 untill the fall of theUmayyads in 750, the capital city was Harran, a city in UpperMesopotamia [northwestern of Iraq and the southeastern Turkey] [74] Under the Ummayyad Caliphate whole North Africa was conquered and now  it was really an Empire. [75] 
SO:The Umayyad Caliphate, at the time of the Battle of Tours [732,when the Moors were beaten by Charles Martel, grandfather of Charlemagne], was perhaps the world's foremost military power! [76]


ABD-AL-RAHMAN AND THE FALL OF THE DAMASCUS UMAYYADCALIPHATEABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FLIGHT FROM DAMASCUS AND EXILE YEARS INNORTH-AFRICA
After the succesful uprising of the Abbasids against the UmmayadCaliphs, nearly the whole Ummayad royal family was massacred. [77]Needless to say, that the Abbasides became the new ruling dynasty,the Abassid Caliphate [78]
But Abd-al-Rahman, [grandson of Caliph HISHAM IBN ABD AL-MALIK[passed on in 743] [79], who was on the death list too, managed to escape. Maybe because his mother was a Berber woman [concubine ofhis father], he fled to North-Africa, together with his brother, son andsome other relatives. [80]After nearly escaping an assissination from an Abbasid death squad,by which he lost his brother [81], Abd-al-Rahman and his Greek freedman,Bedr, reached modern-day Morocco, not after many adventures  [82] [before, he had put his son into safety][83]From Marocco he went to al-Andalus, to establish the Umayyad dynasty, from
which he became the first Emir. [84]
BEFORE BECOMING ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/IN AL-ANDALUS/FIGHTING FOR POWER

He landed in al-Andalus in 755, probably in Malaga,where the conquering Moorswere involved in a power struggle between Berbers and Arabs.Upon landing, Abd al-Rahman was greeted by old Umayyad  clients Abu Uthman and Ibn Khalid and an escort of 300 cavalry.[10] During his brief time in Malaga, he was able to amass local support quickly. Waves of people made their way to Málaga to pay respect to the prince they thought was dead. [85]
Interesting reception indeed!To make a long story short.After a fight for power, during which he won growing supportersover, he succeeded, won the battles, and proclaimed himself Emir [andwas reunited with his son]. [86]
ABD-AL-RAHMAN ITHE ABBASSIDS/AGAIN
But some things never change.After their assassination attempts, again, the Abbassids were in action!Now to send an army to al-Andalus, which they considered as a partof their bloody founded Caliphate.But Abd-Al-Rahman I beat them in 763. [87]

ABBASID-CAROLINGIAN ALLIANCE
But the Abbasids believed in the formula:KEEP TRYING......
So, some small pro Abbasid rulers in Northern Spain closeda military alliance with the Carolingian King Charlemagne to defeatAbd-al-Rahman I.Which came to nothing. [88]This alliance would last untill the first half of the 9th century...[89]
Complicated world......
ABD-AL-RAHMAN IRELATION WITH THE ABBASID DYNASTY
It's not hard to imagine, how the relation between Emir Abd-al-RahmanI and the Abbasid Caliphate was.Bad of course, in so far there WAS a relationship!After all, they massacred nearly  his whole family, the Umayyads,they tried to kill him on his flight and sent an army to defeathim, when establishing his power in al-Andalus!
A Muslim ruler, Abd-al-Raham Ibn Habib al-Fihri [90], who ruledbefore the coming of Abd-al-Rahman I and later was in conflict withhim, banished the name of the Abbasid caliph from the Friday prayers. [91]I can imagine, that Abd-al-Rahman I maintained that banishment!After all, praying for a ruler means acknowledgment of his authority.

You can also ask the question, why he didn't denouncethe Abbadid Caliphate by proclaiming himself caliph
[being the family survivor of the former, overthrown Caliphate], ashis descendant, Abd-al-Rahman III, eventually did [92]Likely Abd-Al-Rahman I didn't, because he had to consolidate his power in al-Andalus, where he faced several uprisings. [93]Probably, we'll never know.....
But what we DO know is that he planned to wage war onthe Abbasid Caliphate, very likely also  to revengethe massacre of his family. [94]But due to domestic problems and the unrest with which he had to deal,it never took place.
IV
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPETHE CIVILIZATION THEY BROUGHT TO EUROPETHE WORLD ABD-AL-RAHMAN I BUILD


AND THEN NOW, WHAT'S HIGLY UNDERESTIMATED INEUROPEAN HISTORY, BUT NOT IN MEDIEVAL SOURCES:The civilization the Moors brought to Europe:
READERS!
Did you know:That you would probably still write with the complicated Roman ciphers  [95],when the Moors didn't invade Visigothic Spain?That likely the Renaissance didn't take place in Europe, or far later? [96]
I deal with that later.
First the propsperity and civilization Abd-al-Rahman I brought to Spain:
He rebuilt the city of Cordoba, turning it to a wealthy, highlycultured city.At the time of his reign, there were 100 000 inhabitants, there wasstreet lighting [unique in Europe], houses with runningwater, there were 70 librariesand 300 public baths! Cordoba was the largest settlement in Europe! [97]
Because of his royal position [prince of the massacred Umayyad dynasty]And-al-Rahman  had extensive trade contacts and relations, which made al-Andalus[Spain] a prosperous country.He sponsored elaborate building programs, promoted agricultureand imported fuit trees, oranges, lemons, palmtrees, pomgranades, avocado's andother plants. Irrigation systems were developed. [98]
He built  the Great Mosque of Cordoba,to be extended under his successors. [99]

During his reign [and that of his successors], there was a great religious tolerance, althoug a special tribute taxhad to be paid by Christians and Jews. [100]


From a ruling point of view also  was ''clever'', that he founded astanding army, consisted of mainly Berbers from North Africa, whoprobably would be more loyal than the local populace..... [101]
So Abd-al-Rahman I introduced a propsperous trade, street-lighting,libraries, built started the Great Mosque of Cordoba..
And then to realize, that at the same time, the Anglo-Saxon[pre-English] Kings lived in wooden castles..... [102]


V

EUROPE SHOULD SAY TO THE MOORS:''THANK YOU''
THE CIVILIZATION THE MOORS BROUGHT TO EUROPETHE TRANSMISSION OF THE GREEK CLASSICS/INTRODUCTION TO THE RENAISSANCE
TWO CULTURE BOOSTS
THE FALL OF ALEXANDRIATHE FALL OF TOLEDO

Without the Moorish conquest of al-Andalus  [Spain]the Renaissance [103] would not be possible, or far, far later! [104]I state that boldly, because there is apparent proof for.
To say it shortly:
There were two boosts of civilization, which both were of thehighest importance to Europe.
The first boost of civilization, from which Europe benefited,was the fall of Alexandria in 641, when the muslim conquerorswere confronted with the riches of the Greek classics, towhich they added their own knowledge.They translatedthe Greek texts in Arabic, brought them via Northern Africanconquests through North Africa,  eventually,to Spain. [105]Especially Cordoba and Toledo were great centres of culture, visitedby many European scholars. [106]Don't wipe out the transmission of Greek learningvia the University of Fez [oldest University in the world] [107]


The second boost of civilization was the fall of Toledo, conqueredby the christian King Alfonso VI of Castile. [108]
The rich knowledge of the Greek claasics and the added Arab knowledgecame out in the open for a great number of European scholars,muslims, Jews and christians worked together [Yeah, it was realteamwork!] to translate texts, there was a great mutual exchange,a great reliigious tolerance and a great boost of knowledge.[109]
THANKS TO THE MOORISH INVADERSWho brought Greek classics, enlarged with rich Arabic knowledge,from North-Africa to al-Andalus, sponsored this knowlegdeinto flourishing culture cities like Cordoba and Toledo,giving European scholars the opportunity to renew theirknowledge of the Greek classics. [110]
And eventually, this great knowledge was brought to Italy,and from Italy on, the Renaissancew began to flow, somecenturies later. [111]Readers, look at the Renaissance not as a new European basedbirth, but as a continuation of an intellectual movement,which had been nourished centuries eralier, by muslims!
I point vehemently on this, because it is often negllected inhistory! 


VI
EUROPE SHOULD SAY TO THE MOORS:''THANK YOU''
THE CIVILIZATION THE MOORS BROUGHT TO EUROPEMUSLIM SCIENCE AND OTHER INVENTIONS
I have written about the muslim transmissionof the Greek classics to Europe, by the Moorishconquest of Spain, with added muslim-Arab knowledge.
But not to be overlooked and highly important is theSCIENCE which was brought to and giiven to Europe.
The Moors brought to Spain sciences like medical science, astromony, Chemistry,Mathematics, Geography as Philosophy [Greek-muslim influence] [112]It was a transmission from ancient Eastern [Persian etc] civilizations, toGreek, to Arabic, with Arabic additions.Because the Arabs were not mere transmittors of Greek texts and knowledge,but built forth on Greek knowledge, with their own views.Algebra, a subdivision of Mathematics, is an Arabic word, like many Spanish words, beginning with al[the]. [113]The numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 en o areArabic numerals [ciphers] [114]The word ''cipher'' is an Arabic word.  [115]Paper [originally from China] was introduced and the Moorishrulers built paperfactories.As was mentioned before:At its height, Córdoba, the heart of Moorish territory in Spain, was the most modern city in Europe. The streets were well-paved, with raised sidewalks for pedestrians. During the night, ten miles of streets were well illuminated by lamps. (This was hundreds of years before there was a paved street in Paris or a street lamp in London.) Cordoba had 900 public baths. [116]
Education was universal in Moorish Spain, available to all, while in Christian Europe ninety-nine percent of the population were illiterate, and even kings could neither read nor write.
Only the clergy could. [117]
And of course the Moorish-muslim-Arab civilization had beeninfluenced by older cultures and civilizations, as always is the case.In this case, old civilizations from China, India and even theBablylonians!
But it is also to be remembered, that the Greek civilization,which brought forth the Greek classics, also had stronginfluence from Egypt, Phoeninians and so on.

VII


EUROPE SHOULD SAY TO THE MOORS:''THANK YOU''
THE CIVILIZATION THE MOORS BROUGHT TO EUROPETHE TROUBADOURS/A ROMANTIC STORY
At the cradle of the Western concept of romantic love,the Troubadour culture, lay the Moorish culture!
It is a fantastic and thrilling story about transmissionof the Moorish culture to Europe!
LISTEN TO THE STORY.....

At the Moorish Court, there were siniging slave girls[a less pretty side of Moorish rule....], who were trainedin singing, intellectual conversation and more skills.When William VIII, Duke of Acquitaine [118] sieged the cityBarbastro [119], to help the christian King Ramiro I of Aragon [120]in his war against the Moors and they succeeded, he tookas prisoners and war conquest, 100 singing slave girlsto France.....[121]When he died, his son and heir, William IX ''inherited''those girls and became the first troubadour! [122]




VII
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPETHE MOORISH RULE/DECLINE AND FALL

But nothing lasts forever!
After the flourishing period of Abd-al-Rahman III [123][a descendant from Abd-al-Rahman I, the royalfugitive from Damascus, who founded the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus/Spain], who built a magnificentpalace called Medinat Azahara [124] and who proclaimed himself ascaliph [125] [thus officially cutting all ties with the AbassidCaliphate, which came into power by massacringnearly all ancestors of abd-al-Rahman III, except his ancestorAbd-al-Rahman I!], the rule of Abdal-Rahman and descendants was called''the Caliphate of Cordoba ] [126], the Moorish rule deteriorated.
There were internal troubles, [within the royal family,withlocal muslim rulers] and the Christian kingdoms in the North of Spain advanced, wagingwar on the Moorish rulers. [127]As one of the reasons of  the decline of theCaliphate of Cordoba [from Abd-al-Rahman III, former it was'the Emirate of Cordoba, founded by Abd-al-Rahman I] [128],is mentioned in the documentary of historian BettanyHughes ''When the Moors ruled in Europe'' [129]
Namely, that Abd-al-Rahman III neglected themilitary defence and had no standingarmy.Therefore he had to rely on mercenaries [who had theirown ambtions, this is an addition of Astrid Essed] [130]
Be as it may, after internal trouble within the royalfamily and with as well muslim rulers, as the Christiankingdoms in Northern Spain, the Caliphate ofCordoba fell in 1031 [131] and desintegrated in smallmuslim kingdoms, taifa's [132]
See under note 133 a survey of the rulers of the Emirateof Cordoba and the Caliphate of Cordoba, from the sameUmayyad family, except for the fact, that Abd-al-Rahman assumedthe title of Caliph [as mentioned above]
Interesting fact
''According to historians, the emirs and caliphs comprising the Umayyad dynasty in Al-Andalus were the sons of concubine slaves (almost all Iberians from the north of the peninsula). ..... [134]

THE BEGINNING OF THE END/TAIFA'S/RECONQUISTA/THE KINGDOM OF GRANADA
So after nearly 300 years, the Emirate/Caliphate of Cordobacame to an end.Founded in 756 by the fugitive Umayyad prince Abd-al-Rahmanafter the massacre of his royal family in Damascus with hisdescendant Abd-al-Rahman III proclaiming himself tocaliph [in 929], this impressive reign came to an end in 1031. [135]The end of an epoch!.
The fall of Moorish civilization in al-Andalus [Moorish Spain] wasabout to begin.
TAIFA'S/RECONQUISTA/THE BEGINNING OF THE CRUSADES
The great Reign of Cordoba desintegrated in isolated city States,the socalled Taifa's [136] and in the North of al-Andalus [where fromthe beginning there were strongholds of Christian kingdoms, which survivedpartially thanks to their mountainous strongholds], christiantroops flooded over al-Andalus, waging a war of scorched earth.[137]
Following that, the desintegrated muslim territories became tributaryStates to the christian Kingdoms [on the blackmail principle:  ''I will not destroy your land, ifyou pay me''] [138]Historians tell us, that for one century [the 11th], due tothis tribute [blackmail] system, the whole christian Spainlived at the expense of muslim Spain! [139]
So:From the 11 untill the 14th century [ultimately ending with the fall of the Kingdom of Granada in the end of the 15th century],al-Andalus was under christian attack, the socalled Reconquista [140]a desasterous war of destruction, but also [in  modern terms] a warof liberation against the Moorish occupation!

Ironically enough:When the tensions between christians and  muslims [keepin mind, that m,any ethnic Spanish people, former Visigoths,were conversed to Islam too!] grew nearly unbearable, the greatflow of civilization took place, after the conquest of Toledo![141]
THE CRUSADES!/READERS!It is also very important you keep in mind, that the christian attackson al-Andalus, after the crashing of the Kingdom of Cordoba,coincided with the beginning of the Crusades, in 1095.From that flow of religious wars on the Holy Land, the Reconquistaderived the justification for the attacks, enjoying the approvalof the Pope. [142]


HELP OF MAROCCO/THE ALMORAVIDSAL-ANDALUS CRUSHED BETWEEN TO EXTREMES
To fight against the christian invaders [or liberation fighters,you may choose, readers], the weak desintegrated city states[after the fall of the Kingdom of Cordoba, you remember?],asked help from North-Africa, coming from troopsfrom Morocco.They were nomads from the deserts, newly conversed tothe Islam, with a fearful fighting reputation, the socalledAlmoravids. [143]But except for their fighting spirit, they were religiousfundamentalist, who didn't like the al-Andalus society at all!
They were suspicious of the scientific collaboration betweenchristians, Jews and muslims and wanted to ''purify''the Islam, bringing back ''basic Islamic values'', as they saw it.
Soon, the remaining rulers of Al-Andalus felt crushed betweenthe christian invaders of the North and the Almoravid helpersfrom the South.The al-Andalus society desintegrated further in corruptionand confusion.Christian mercenaries would fight on both sides.
There came a situation of variying alliances, on both sides anda powerful christian King in the North would give militaryaid to a weak muslim King, in exchange for.......tributes again.
Al-Andalus was extorted further......[144]See under note 145 an overview of the main Christian andMoorish Kingdoms in al-Andalus.

SWAN SONG/LAST STRONGHOLD/THE KINGDOM OF GRANADA

Desintegration, desintegration, desintegration......In 1236 Cordoba, the ancient capital of al-Andalus,fell, followed by Valencia and Sevilla. [146]Untill in 1250, only the Kingdom of Granada survived! [147]And despite of the fact, that it was a weak Kingdom, withinternal strife and factually a tributary State of the christianKingdoms in the North [148], it held its ground untill it wasconquered in 1492 by the reyes catolicos, Ferdinand and Isabella.[149]
Aftermath.....

As all ''aftermaths'', the aftermath was dramatic, resulting in thethourough and ultimate expulsion of the whole Muslimpopulation of al-Andalus.The whole ''Moorish'' population......[150]Also the Jewish population was expelled....[151]As you see, I have put Moorish between ''You know whyAnd why it is so ironic?
Because most of those expelled muslims were ethnic Spanishpeople [descended from the old Visigoths etc], who had beenconversed to Islam, ...... [152]
But whoever they were, a human tragedy, the greatestethnic cleansing operation in Europe. 


So:This was the end of the 700 Moorish rule in al-Andalus[Muslim Spain], bringing great civilization to al-Andalus, from the fallof Alexandria in 641, which opened the Greek classics forthe muslim Arab conquerors, translating them in Arabic and added Indian/Persian/Arab and otherEastern  knowledge, and ultimately brought those wisdomsto al-Andalus [Spain]
To the fall of Toledo [in 1085, reconquered by the christian armies],which opened the Greek-Arab-Eastern wisdom to theEuropean scholars, laying the foundation forthe Renaissance. [153]
I REPEAT AND REPEAT THIS ARAB TRANSMISSION OFCIVILIZATION TO EUROPE, BECAUSE IT IS SO OFTENNEGLECTED!

END OF THE JOURNEY

Readers!I have travelled with you to the past again!This time not to Medieval England of the Wars of theRoses [154], but to al-Andalus, Medieval Spain, ruledby the Moors, who brought a high civilization to Europe.
Direct cause:A silly remark of Kathryn Warner in her [appreciated byme, make no mistake!] Blog ''EdwardthesecondBlogspot'',about the impossibility of ''Arabic features'' in Queen Isabellaof France, wife to King Edward II and mother of King Edward III.[155]See for my comment on her remarks, direct below
But that matters not, because it gave me the opportunity tomake this historical trip with you, from 2017 to al-Andalus[711-1492], from the great Arabic Muslim Caliphate, throughthe lands of North Africa, to Spain and the culturalinfluence on the rest of Europe, leading to theRenaissance.
It was my pleasure to share this with you.
I hope you enjoyed it as I did.

I will travel with you to the past another time again.

Thanks for accompanying me.You were nice companions!

Astrid Essed





MY COMMENT ON KATHRYN WARNER





 
EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOTEDWARD II: BOOK REVIEW: ISABELLA AND THE STRANGEDEATH OF EDWARD II23 JUNE 2013

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2013/06/book-review- isabella-and-strange-death. html





ISABELLA'S ARABIC FEATURES, NOT UNLIKELY SINCEHER FATHER'S AND MOTHER'S SPANISH DESCENT


Dear Mrs Warner
You wrote:'''The chroniclers attest to her loveliness, to her beautiful blonde hair, which she inherited from her father, Philip le Bel, and her slightly arabic [sic] features from her mother Johanna of Navarre''......''The colour of Isabella's hair is not stated anywhere; neither are her 'slightly arabic', written with a small 'a' for some weird reason, features, whatever 'slightly Arabic features' may be and how they came to exist in a woman, Joan of Navarre, who was of mostly French and northern European, partly Spanish, origin. ''
I couldn't disagree with you more:Because, since Isabella's mother, Joan of Navarre, is partly ofSpanish descent, it is highly likely, she could have inheritedslightly arabic features.As a Medieval historian you know, that the Moors ruled Spainfrom 711 untill 1492 and it is impossible, that there is no mixtureof [arabic/Berber] DNA between the original [Visigoth]Spanish populations and the Moors, with such a long a ruling period.Besides, scientific researchs have confirmed itSee
''

  • The Spanish population may harbor some African-related admixture representing a fourth wave of migration into Europe, but affecting Spain much more than the other groups. The Spanish population shows an African admixture of 14.8% (12.6% Mozabite and 2.2% Mbuti/Yoruba), confirming that gene flow from Sub-Saharan or North African populations has occurred in the Spanish sample.[56]''



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ African_admixture_in_Europe

Besides:Isabella could have inherited the arabic features also fromher father's side, since Philip IV of France's mother was a Spanish princess, Isabella of Aragon.

Kind greetings/Astrid Essed/The Netherlands

SEE FOR NOTES

https://www.astridessed.nl/book-review-isabella-and-the-strange-death-of-edward-iicomments-on-some-remarks-of-kathryn-warneredwardthesecomdblogspot-com/




OR



http://astridessed.weebly.com/blog/book-review-isabella-and-the-strange-death-of-edward-iicomments-on-some-remarks-of-kathryn-warner-edwardthesecondblogspotcom




ELABORATE NOTE APPARATUS:




[1]

YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA


[2]

WIKIPEDIAPAUL C. DOHERTY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Paul_C._Doherty




[3]


EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT.COMBOOK REVIEW: ISABELLA AND THE STRANGEDEATH OF EDWARD II

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2013/06/book-review-isabe lla-and-strange-death.html


[4]

EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT.COMBOOK REVIEW: ISABELLA AND THE STRANGEDEATH OF EDWARD II

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2013/06/book-review-isabe lla-and-strange-death.html



[5]


WIKIPEDIAISABELLA OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France



[6]


WIKIPEDIAJOAN I OF NAVARRE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Joan_I_of_Navarre


[7]

THIS CART OF SPAIN [THE GREEN AREA] SHOWS THE GREATESTEXTENT OF MOORISH EXPANSION IN SPAIN, IN 720

WIKIPEDIAISLAMIC AL-ANDALUS AND THE CHRISTIAN RECONQUEST(8TH - 15TH CENTURIES]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ History_of_Spain#Islamic_al-An dalus_and_the_Christian_Reconq uest_.288th.E2.80.9315th_centu ries.29

[8]

WIKIPEDIAUMMAYAD OCCUPATION AND ASTURIAN REVOLT


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Asturias#Umayyad_oc cupation_and_Asturian_revolt


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAKINGDOM OF ASTURIAS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Asturias


[9]


Here you see Moorish power diminished [Look at the cart of Spain],but still controling a major part of Spain

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emirate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba


[10]


WIKIPEDIA
THE UMAYYAD EMIRATE OF CORDOBA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#The _Umayyad_Emirate_of_C.C3.B3rdo ba_.28756.E2.80.93929.29


THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#The _Umayyad_Caliphate_.28929.E2. 80.931031.29


ORININAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIATIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula







ORIGINAL SOURCE

TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula


''The Caliphate of Cordoba subsisted three centuries - 756 to 1031 - attaining its highest power and splendour under Abdalrahman the third, surnamed Alnazar, or the prosperous, who reigned in the early part of the tenth century. His dominions included Catalonia and Valencia, Granada and Murcia, Andalusia and New Castile, Portugal and Sicily. Abdalrahman was probably the richest potentate of his age, his revenues amounting to thirteen millions of gold dinars, equal to about six millions pounds sterling, an immense sum in the days of Athelstan, the contemporary king of England.''.......................''Cordoba under the Arabs and especially under the dynasty of the Omayyades from 756 to 1031, became one of the wealthiest and most cultured cities of Europe, rising to the dignity of capital of the Caliphate of Cordoba and metropolis of all Moorish Spain. The city of Cordoba, with its palaces and gardens, extended, at that time, twenty Miles along the banks of the Guadalquivir; and contained within its walls two hundred thousand houses, six hundred mosques, and nine hundred public baths. It was during this period that the city was resorted to by students of Arabic learning from all over the world. After its separation as a dependency of the Caliphate of Damascus Cordoba, rose to a point of such importance in Mohammedanism that its mosque, known as the Ceca, rivaled Mecca, and became known, in fact, as the Western Mecca.''
UMAYYAD CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA 929-1031
http://www.globalsecurity.org/ military/world/europe/es-calip h-ummayyad.htm



''Córdoba was the cultural centre of al-Andalus.[12] Mosques, such as the Great Mosque, were the focus of many caliphs' attention. The caliph's palace, Medina Azahara is on the outskirts of the city, and had many rooms filled with riches from the East. Córdoba was the intellectual centre of al-Andalus, with translations of ancient Greek texts into Arabic, Latin and Hebrew. The library of Al-Ḥakam II was one of the largest libraries in the world, housing at least 400,000 volumes.[13] During the Caliphate period, relations between Jews and Arabs were cordial; Jewish stonemasons helped build the columns of the Great Mosque.

Advances in science, history, geography, philosophy, and language occurred during the Caliphate.[14] Al-Andalus was subject to eastern cultural influences as well. The musician Ziryab is credited with bringing hair and clothing styles, toothpaste, and deodorant from Baghdad to the Iberian peninsula''


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba#Cult ure



ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA

CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba







YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA




[11]


WIKIPEDIA
THE UMAYYAD EMIRATE OF CORDOBA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#The _Umayyad_Emirate_of_C.C3.B3rdo ba_.28756.E2.80.93929.29


THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#The _Umayyad_Caliphate_.28929.E2. 80.931031.29


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIATIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula



[12]
WIKIPEDIA
POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION (1031-1130)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_ presence_in_the_Iberian_ Peninsula#Political_ fragmentation_.281031.E2.80. 931130.29


DECLINE AND SUBMISSION TO CHRISTIAN RULE (1130-1481)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_ presence_in_the_Iberian_ Peninsula#Decline_and_ submission_to_Christian_rule_. 281130.E2.80.931481.29


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIATIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula


''In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from Arabic: طائفة‎‎    ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, usually an emirate, though there was one oligarchy, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.''
WIKIPEDIATAIFASEE THE CART OF SPAIN, SHOWING THE TAIFA KINGDOMS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa


LIST OF TAIFAS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa#List_of_taifas



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIATAIFA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa



[13]
WIKIPEDIA
MUSLIM DECLINE AND DEFEAT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Reconquista#Muslim_decline_and _defeat


GRANADA WAR AND THE END OF MUSLIM RULE IN IBERIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Reconquista#Granada_War_and_th e_end_of_Muslim_rule_in_Iberia


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIARECONQUISTA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Reconquista


[14]


WIKIPEDIAAFRICAN ADMIXTURE IN EUROPE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ African_admixture_in_Europe




[15]
WIKIPEDIA
GENETIC HISTORY OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULANORTH-AFRICAN INFLUENCE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Genetic_history_of_the_ Iberian_Peninsula#North_ African_influence

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
GENETIC HISTORY OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULA



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Genetic_history_of_the_ Iberian_Peninsula

[16]

''His second wife, Urraca, according to Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Hazm, was the daughter of the Banu Qasi governor of Tudela. They were married by 917.''



WIKIPEDIAFRUELA II OF ASTURIAS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Fruela_II_of_Asturias



''The Banu QasiBanu KasiBeni Casi (Arabic: بنو قسي or بني قسي‎‎, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a Hispano-Roman Muwallad dynas ty that ruled the upper Ebro valley in the 9th century, before being displaced in the first quarter of the 10th century.''

WIKIPEDIABANU QASI

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Banu_Qasi


''The Muladi (Spanishmuladí     [mulaˈði]pl. muladíesPo r t u guesemuladi [mulɐˈði]pl. m uladisCatalanmuladita [muɫ əˈðitə] or muladí [muɫəˈði]p l. muladites or muladísArabi c: مولد‎‎ trans. muwalladpl.     مولدون muwalladūn or مولدي ن   m uwalladīn) were Muslims of local descent or of mixed BerberArab and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages. They were also called "Musalimah" (Islamized) . In broader usage, the word muwallad is used to describe Arabs of mixed parentage, especially those not living in their ancestral homelands.[1][2]''


WIKIPEDIA
MULADI

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muladi




''Urraca, the daughter of ‘Abd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Lubb b. Mūsa b. Mūsa, married Fruela (d. 925), the son of Alfonso III (d. 910), who was the King of Asturias and León, with whom she had two sons: Ramiro and Ordoño''
BALLANDALUS.WORDPRESS.COM
INTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIAN DYNASTIESIN EARLY MEDIEVAL IBERIA (711-1100)

https://ballandalus.wordpress. com/2015/08/04/intermarriage- between-muslim-and-christian- dynasties-in-early-medieval- iberia-711-1100/


[17]


WIKIPEDIAURRACA OF LEON [ALSO QUEEN OF CASTILE]LOOK AT THE COLOURED IMAGE!

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Urraca_of_Le%C3%B3n

WIKIPEDIAALFONSO VII OF LEON [AND CASTILE]I CAN SEE SOME COLOURED FEATURES OF THE IMAGE, WHICHHE MUST HAVE INHERITED FROM HIS MOTHER, URRACA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Alfonso_VII_of_Le%C3%B3n


[18]

''By 1491, the city of Granada itself lay under siege. On November 25, 1491, the Treaty of Granada was signed, setting out the conditions for surrender. On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim leader, Muhammad XII, known as Boabdil to the Spanish, gave up complete control of Granada, to Ferdinand and IsabellaLos Reyes Católicos ("The Catholic Monarchs").''

FALL OF GRANADA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emirate_of_Granada#Fall_of_Gra nada



ORIGINAL SOURCEWIKIPEDIAEMIRATE OF GRANADA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emirate_of_Granada




[19]

WIKIPEDIALIST OF CASTILIAN MONARCHS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Castilian_monarchs



[20]

WIKIPEDIALIST OF CASTILIAN MONARCHS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Castilian_monarchs



[21]



'' 3) The colour of Isabella's hair is not stated anywhere; neither are her 'slightly arabic', written with a small 'a' for some weird reason, features, whatever 'slightly Arabic features' may be and how they came to exist in a woman, Joan of Navarre, who was of mostly French and northern European, partly Spanish, origin. '



EDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOT.COMBOOK REVIEW: ISABELLA AND THE STRANGEDEATH OF EDWARD II

http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2013/06/book-review-isabe lla-and-strange-death.html


'


[22]

''Intermarriage across religious and ethnic lines was thus a common feature of both Christian and Muslim Spain in the Middle Ages, even though the marriage of Muslim men to Christian women was far more common than the marriage of Muslim women to Christian men (due largely to the Islamic prohibition of the latter).''

BALLANDALUS.WORDPRESS.COMINTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIANDYNASTIES IN EARLY MEDIEVAL IBERIA [711-1100)


https://ballandalus.wordpress. com/2015/08/04/intermarriage- between-muslim-and-christian- dynasties-in-early-medieval- iberia-711-1100/




[23]

'''Marriage to local Iberian women became an established custom among the inhabitants of al-Andalus, whether commanders, caliphs, elites or commoners.''


BALLANDALUS.WORDPRESS.COMINTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIANDYNASTIES IN EARLY MEDIEVAL IBERIA [711-1100)


https://ballandalus.wordpress. com/2015/08/04/intermarriage- between-muslim-and-christian- dynasties-in-early-medieval- iberia-711-1100/


[24]


''His second wife, Urraca, according to Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Hazm, was the daughter of the Banu Qasi governor of Tudela. They were married by 917.''



WIKIPEDIAFRUELA II OF ASTURIAS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Fruela_II_of_Asturias



''The Banu QasiBanu KasiBeni Casi (Arabic: بنو قسي or بني قسي‎‎, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a Hispano-Roman Muwallad dynas ty that ruled the upper Ebro valley in the 9th century, before being displaced in the first quarter of the 10th century.''

WIKIPEDIABANU QASI

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Banu_Qasi


''The Muladi (Spanishmuladí     [mulaˈði]pl. muladíesPo r t u guesemuladi [mulɐˈði]pl. m uladisCatalanmuladita [muɫ əˈðitə] or muladí [muɫəˈði]p l. muladites or muladísArabi c: مولد‎‎ trans. muwalladpl.     مولدون muwalladūn or مولدي ن   m uwalladīn) were Muslims of local descent or of mixed BerberArab and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages. They were also called "Musalimah" (Islamized) . In broader usage, the word muwallad is used to describe Arabs of mixed parentage, especially those not living in their ancestral homelands.[1][2]''


WIKIPEDIA
MULADI

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muladi




''Urraca, the daughter of ‘Abd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Lubb b. Mūsa b. Mūsa, married Fruela (d. 925), the son of Alfonso III (d. 910), who was the King of Asturias and León, with whom she had two sons: Ramiro and Ordoño''
BALLANDALUS.WORDPRESS.COM
INTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIAN DYNASTIESIN EARLY MEDIEVAL IBERIA (711-1100)

https://ballandalus.wordpress. com/2015/08/04/intermarriage- between-muslim-and-christian- dynasties-in-early-medieval- iberia-711-1100/



[25]


WIKIPEDIAABD-AR-RAHMAN III

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III



[26]


WIKIPEDIAASSUMPTION OF THE CALIPHATE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III#Assumption_ of_the_Caliphate


ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA


WIKIPEDIAABD-AR-RAHMAN III

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III



[27]


GRANDFATHER [AND PREDECESSOR] OF ABD-AR-RAHMAN III
WIKIPEDIAABDULLAH IBN MUHAMMAD AL-UMAWI

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abdullah_ibn_Muhammad_al-Umawi



[28]


Abd ar-Rahman was born in Córdoba, the grandson of Abdullah, seventh independent Umayyad emir of Al-Andalus. His parents were Abdullah's son Muhammad and Muzna (or Muzayna), a Christian concubine.[16]


WIKIPEDIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III#Life


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AR0RAHMAN III

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III



[29]

''His paternal grandmother was also a Christian, the royal infanta Onneca Fortúnez, daughter of the captive king Fortún Garcés of Pamplona.''

WIKIPEDIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III#Life


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AR0RAHMAN III

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III


WIKIPEDIAONNECA FORTUNEZ

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Onneca_Fort%C3%BAnez


''Onneca's father Fortún Garcés, the then heir to the throne of Pamplona, was captured in 860 in the town of Milagro during a punitive expedition led by Muhammad I, the Muslim emir of Córdoba, against the small Kingdom of Pamplona. The expedition resulted in the devastation of the Christian kingdom's territory and the seizure of three castles by the Muslim forces. Fortun Garcés, nicknamed al-Anqar (الأنقر) by the Muslims because he was one-eyed, was taken to Córdoba where he was detained for two decades in gilded captivity''

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Onneca_Fort%C3%BAnez#Marriage_ to_Emir_Abdullah



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIAONNECA FORTUNEZ

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Onneca_Fort%C3%BAnez


WIKIPEDIAFORTUN GARCES OF PAMPLONA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Fort%C3%BAn_Garc%C3%A9s_of_Pam plona





[30]

WIKIPEDIAEARLY YEARS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III#Early_years



ORIGINAL SOURCEWIKIPEDIAABD-AR-RAHMAN III
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III



[31]

WIKIPEDIAUMAYYAD CALIPHATE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate




''Ṭāriq ibn Ziyād (Arabic: طارق بن زياد‎‎) was a Berber[1] Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar.''

WIKIPEDIATARIQ IBN ZIYAD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tariq_ibn_Ziyad

''Walid continued his father's policies of expanding Islamic power through conquests and took the early Islamic empire to its farthest extent. In 711, Muslim armies crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and began to conquer the Iberian Peninsula using North African Berber troops.''

WIKIPEDIAAL WALID ICONQUESTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Walid_I#Conquests



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAAL WALID I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Walid_I


''By 716, the Visigoths of Iberia had been defeated and Iberia was under Muslim control. In the east, Islamic armies made it as far as the Indus River in 712. Under Walid, the Caliphate stretched from the Iberian Peninsula to India''


WIKIPEDIAAL WALID ICONQUESTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Walid_I#Conquests



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAAL WALID I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Walid_I


[32]

''The border between Muslim and Christian lands wavered southward through 700 years of war, which marked the peninsula as a militarily contended space. However, Christians lived in Muslim kingdoms and Muslims lived in Christian kingdoms in relative peace, but violence did break out, especially in relation to competition for resources.[1] 

WIKIPEDIASPAIN IN THE MIDDLE AGES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Spain_in_the_Middle_Ages





[33]




YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA




[34]



BALLANDALUS.WORDPRESS.COMINTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIANDYNASTIES IN EARLY MEDIEVAL IBERIA [711-1100)


https://ballandalus.wordpress. com/2015/08/04/intermarriage- between-muslim-and-christian- dynasties-in-early-medieval- iberia-711-1100/


[35]

YOUTUBE.COM
WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA

''The etymology of the name has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals.''
WIKIPEDIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Andalus#Name


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAAL-ANDALUS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Andalus



[36]


''

  • 717 – Córdoba becomes the capital of Muslim Al-Andalus.''



WIKIPEDIACONQUEST (711-756)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#Con quest_.28711.E2.80.93756.29

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIATIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula








[37]


''Córdoba was the cultural centre of al-Andalus.[12] Mosques, such as the Great Mosque, were the focus of many caliphs' attention. The caliph's palace, Medina Azahara is on the outskirts of the city, and had many rooms filled with riches from the East. Córdoba was the intellectual centre of al-Andalus, with translations of ancient Greek texts into Arabic, Latin and Hebrew. The library of Al-Ḥakam II was one of the largest libraries in the world, housing at least 400,000 volumes.''
WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/CULTURE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba# Culture


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba



''Cordoba used to be the jewel of Europe dazzling visitors from the North. With over 70 public libraries during the time of Caliph Hakam II, and 900 public baths, Scholars and booksellers flocked there and made it Europes intellectual centre by the 10th century A.D.''

MUSLIMHERITAGE.COMCORDOBA, EUROPEAN JEWEL OF THE MIDDLE AGES

http://muslimheritage.com/ article/cordoba-european- jewel-middle-ages





YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA





''8. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, public libraries in Europe were non-existent, while Moorish Spain could boast of more than seventy, of which the one in Cordova housed six hundred thousand manuscripts.''

BLACK HISTORY STUDIES15 THINGS YOU DID NOT KNOW ABOUT THE MOORSIN SPAIN
http://www.blackhistorystudies .com/resources/resources/15-fa cts-on-the-moors-in-spain/

[38]


The rulers of Al-Andalus were granted the rank of Emir by the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I in Damascus


WIKIPEDIAABBASIDS OVERTRHOW THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ History_of_Spain#Abbasids_over throw_the_Umayyad_Caliphate


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAHISTORY OF SPAIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ History_of_Spain



''Walid continued his father's policies of expanding Islamic power through conquests and took the early Islamic empire to its farthest extent. In 711, Muslim armies crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and began to conquer the Iberian Peninsula using North African Berber troops.''

WIKIPEDIAAL WALID ICONQUESTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Walid_I#Conquests



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAAL WALID I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Walid_I





[39]

Ṭāriq ibn Ziyād (Arabic: طارق بن زياد‎‎) was a Berber[1] Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar


WIKIPEDIATARIQ IBN ZIYAD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tariq_ibn_Ziyad




YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA

[40]




''711 – A Berber force of about 7,000 soldiers under the Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad, loyal to the Umayyad Emir of Damascus, Al-Walid I, enters the Iberian peninsula from North Africa.


WIKIPEDIACONQUEST (711-756)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#Con quest_.28711.E2.80.93756.29


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIATIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula


YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA



[41]

''Musa, learning of Tariq's successes, landed in Iberia with an army 18,000 Berbers and Arabs.''

WIKIPEDIA/MUSA BIN NUSAYR/CONQUEST OF ANDALUS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Musa_bin_Nusayr#Conquest_of_Al -Andalus


ORIGINAL SOURCEMUSA BIN NUSAYR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Musa_bin_Nusayr



[42]

YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA


''In 712, Musa, the governor of Ifriqiya, arrived with another army of 18,000, with large Arab contingents. He took Mérida in 713 and invaded the north, taking Saragossa and León, which were still under King Ardo, in 714. After being recalled by the Caliph, Musa left his son Abd al-‘Aziz in command. By 716, most of the Iberian Peninsula was under Islamic rule, with Gallia Narbonensis taken between 721 and 725''

WIKIPEDIAVISIGOTHIC KINGDOM/MUSLIM CONQUEST

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Visigothic_Kingdom#Muslim_conq uest



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAVISIGOTHIC KINGDOM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Visigothic_Kingdom
NOTE:
GALLIA NARBONENSIS, WHICH WAS NOT UNDERMUSLIM CONTROL UNTILL 725, WAS NOT LOCATED INSPAIN, BUT IN FRANCE [CALLED FRANCIA THEN, THE PRECAROLINGIAN PERIOD, THE PERIOD OF THE MAYORSOF THE PALACE]

WIKIPEDIAGALLIA NARBONENSIS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Gallia_Narbonensis


WIKIPEDIAFRANCIA/DOMINANCE OF THE MAYORS OF THE PALACE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Francia#Dominance_of_the_mayor s_of_the_palace.2C_687.E2.80.9 3751


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAFRANCIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Francia





''The most visible effect was the depopulation of the cities as they moved to the countryside. Even while the country enjoyed a degree of prosperity when compared to the famines of France and Germany in this period, the Visigoths felt little reason to contribute to the welfare, permanency, and infrastructure of their people and state. This contributed to their downfall, as they could not count on the loyalty of their subjects when the Moors arrived in the 8th century''

WIKIPEDIAHISTORY OF SPAIN/VISIGOTHIC RULE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ History_of_Spain#Visigothic_ru le

ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAHISTORY OF SPAIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ History_of_Spain

''In history he actually is an extremely obscure figure about whom little can be said with certainty but that he ruled part of Hispania with opponents ruling the rest and was defeated and killed by invading Muslims who soon conquered most of the peninsula.''
WIKIPEDIARODERIC

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roderic


[43]


The name Gibraltar is the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name Jabal Ṭāriq (جبل طارق), meaning "Mountain of Tariq".


WIKIPEDIAGIBRALTAR/NAME

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Gibraltar#Name

ORIGINAL SOURCE:

WIKIPEDIAGIBRALTAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Gibraltar


''The name "Gibraltar" is the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name Jabal Ṭāriq (جبل طارق), meaning "mountain of Ṭāriq",[2] which is named after him.''

WIKIPEDIATARIQ BIN ZIYAD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tariq_ibn_Ziyad





[44]

WIKIPEDIAFRANCIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Francia


[45]

LOOK AT THE CARTS OF FRANCE, WHERE TOURS ANDPOITIERS ARE LOCATEDSO FAR THE MOORS HAD MARCHED AND OCCUPIED FRANCIA,SINCE THE DECISIVE BATTLE WHERE THEY WERE DEFEATED, TOOKPLACE NEAR TOURS AND POITIERSAT THE OTHER SIDE:FRANCIA [THE LATER FRANCE] WAS A BIGGER KINGDOM THEN[SEE UNDER WIKIPEDIA/POITIERS], WHICH MADE TOURS ANDPOITIERS LOWER LOCATED.HOWEVER, THE MOORS HAD ADVANCED FAR ANYWAY.

WIKIPEDIATOURS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tours


WIKIPEDIAPOITIERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Poitiers

SEE THE MEDIEVAL CART OF FRANCIA,CONSISTING PARTS OF THE PRESENT WEST GERMANYAND PARTS OF BELGIUM AND THE NETHERLANDS [IN THAT TIMEOFTEN BOTH CALLED THE NETHERLANDS]

WIKIPEDIAFRANCIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Francia



[46]

WIKIPEDIACHARLES MARTEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Charles_Martel


WIKIPEDIAMAJOR OF THE PALACE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Mayor_of_the_Palace






''In 732 AD, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi and a large army of Muslim horsemen from Al-Andalus advanced 500 kilometres (311 miles) deep into France, and were stopped at Tours by Charles Martel and his infantry igniting the Battle of Tours. The outcome was defeat for the Muslims, preventing France from Islamic conquest. ''
WIKIPEDIATOURS/MIDDLE AGES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tours#Middle_Ages


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
TOURS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tours



[47]


WIKIPEDIALIST OF FRANKISH KINGS/MEROVINGIAN KINGS OF THEFRANKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Frankish_kings# Merovingian_kings_of_the_ Franks


ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIALIST OF FRANKISH KINGS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Frankish_kings



[48]

''Under the Merovingian dynasty, the mayor of the palace (Latinmaior palatii) or majordomo (maior domus) was the manager of the household of the Frankish king. The office existed from the sixth century, and during the seventh it evolved into the "power behind the throne" in the northeastern kingdom of Austrasia. In 751, the mayor of the palace, Pepin the Short, orchestrated the deposition of the king, Childeric III, and was crowned in his place.''

WIKIPEDIAMAYOR OF THE PALACE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Mayor_of_the_Palace


WIKIPEDIAROYAL HOUSEHOLD UNDER THE MEROVINGIANS AND CAROLINGIANS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Royal_household_under_the_Mero vingians_and_Carolingians



[49]

''Pepin the Short (GermanPippin der KleineFrenchPépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death. He was the first of the Carolingians to become king''............


WIKIPEDIAPEPIN THE SHORT, SON OF CHARLES MARTEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Pepin_the_Short




[50]

''Charlemagne (/ˈʃɑːrlᵻmeɪn/) or Charles the Great[a] (2 April 742/747/748[1] – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was the King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774 and Emperor of the Romans from 800. He united much of Europe during the early Middle Ages. He was the first recognised emperor in western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state which Charlemagne founded was called the Carolingian Empire.''


WIKIPEDIACHARLEMAGNE, SON OF PEPIN THE SHORT AND GRANDSON OF CHARLES MARTEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Charlemagne





[51]

''The Battle of Tours (10 October 732)[17] — also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs (Arabic: معركة بلاط الشهداء‎, translit. Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’‎)[18][19][20] — was fought between Frankish and Burgundia n[21][22] forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by 'Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus. It was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in north-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of Poitiers. The location of the battle was close to the border between the Frankish realm and then-independent Aquitaine.''


WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF TOURS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Tours



[52]




YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA



[53]

WIKIPEDIAJOHN, KING OF ENGLAND


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England



[54]

WIKIPEDIARICHARD I OF ENGLAND [LION HEART]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Richard_I_of_England



[55]



YOUTUBE.COMKINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND: EPISODE I: NORMANS

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0PfoYkgoBZQ

''Writing two decades after the events, Matthew Paris, a St Albans chronicler of the early thirteenth century, claims that, in desperation, John sent envoys to al-Nâsir asking for his help. In return John offered to convert to Islam and turn England into a Muslim state. Among the delegates was Master Robert, a London cleric. Al-Nâsir was said to be so disgusted by John’s grovelling plea that he sent the envoys away.



WIKIPEDIA
MUHAMMAD AL-NASIR/RELATIONSHIP WITH KING JOHN OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_al-Nasir#Relationship _with_King_John_of_England


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAMUHAMMAD AL-NASIR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_al-Nasir


[55]

''In the early 13th century, John, King of England was under pressure after a quarrel with Pope Innocent III led to England being placed under an interdict, by which all forms of worship and other religious practices were banned. John himself was excommunicated, parts of the country were in revolt and there were threats of a French invasion.

Writing two decades after the events, Matthew Paris, a St Albans chronicler of the early thirteenth century, claims that, in desperation, John sent envoys to al-Nâsir asking for his help. In return John offered to convert to Islam and turn England into a Muslim state. Among the delegates was Master Robert, a London cleric. Al-Nâsir was said to be so disgusted by John’s grovelling plea that he sent the envoys away.''


WIKIPEDIA
MUHAMMAD AL-NASIR/RELATIONSHIP WITH KING JOHN OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_al-Nasir#Relationship _with_King_John_of_England


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAMUHAMMAD AL-NASIR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_al-Nasir




[56]

WIKIPEDIAJOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/DISPUTE WITH THE POPE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Dispute_ with_the_Pope


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAJOHN, KING OF ENGLAND


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England


''Innocent set a commission in place to try to convince John to change his mind, but to no avail. Innocent then placed an interdict on England in March 1208, prohibiting clergy from conducting religious services, with the exception of baptisms for the young, and confessions and absolutions for the dying''

WIKIPEDIAJOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/DISPUTE WITH THE POPE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Dispute_ with_the_Pope


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAJOHN, KING OF ENGLAND


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England


''In Catholic canon law, an interdict /ˈɪntərdɪkt/ is an ecclesiastical censure that prohibits certain active Church individuals or groups from participating in certain rites.[1]''


WIKIPEDIA
INTERDICT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Interdict

[57]

''By 1209 the situation showed no signs of resolution, and Innocent threatened to excommunicate John if he did not acquiesce to Langton's appointment.[171] When this threat failed, Innocent excommunicated the king in November 1209.''


WIKIPEDIAJOHN, KING OF ENGLAND/DISPUTE WITH THE POPE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England#Dispute_ with_the_Pope


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAJOHN, KING OF ENGLAND


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ John,_King_of_England


[58]

YOUTUBE.COMKINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND: EPISODE I: NORMANS

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0PfoYkgoBZQ



''In the early 13th century, John, King of England was under pressure after a quarrel with Pope Innocent III led to England being placed under an interdict, by which all forms of worship and other religious practices were banned. John himself was excommunicated, parts of the country were in revolt and there were threats of a French invasion.

Writing two decades after the events, Matthew Paris, a St Albans chronicler of the early thirteenth century, claims that, in desperation, John sent envoys to al-Nâsir asking for his help. In return John offered to convert to Islam and turn England into a Muslim state. Among the delegates was Master Robert, a London cleric. Al-Nâsir was said to be so disgusted by John’s grovelling plea that he sent the envoys away.''


WIKIPEDIA
MUHAMMAD AL-NASIR/RELATIONSHIP WITH KING JOHN OF ENGLAND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_al-Nasir#Relationship _with_King_John_of_England


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAMUHAMMAD AL-NASIR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_al-Nasir



[59]

WIKIPEDIAHISPANIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hispania





WIKIPEDIACATHOLIC KINGDOM OF TOLEDO
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Visigothic_Kingdom#Catholic_Ki ngdom_of_Toledo


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAVISIGOTHIC KINGDOM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Visigothic_Kingdom




[60]

WIKIPEDIAFRANCIA/ISLAMIC INVASION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Francia#Islamic_invasion


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAFRANCIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Francia



[61]

WIKIPEDIAUMAYYAD CALIPHATE
LOOK AT THE CART FOR THE VAST EMPIRE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate



[62]

''The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightl y Guided CaliphsArabic: الخلفاء الراشدون‎‎ al-Khulafāʾu ar-Rāshidūn), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, ‘Umar‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, and ‘Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate, at least.[1]''


WIKIPEDIARASHIDUN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Rashidun



[63]

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF TOURS/MOORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Tours#Moors




ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF TOURS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Tours


[64]

WIKIPEDIA
TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA/CONQUEST (711-756)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#Con quest_.28711.E2.80.93756.29


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula
[65]


WIKIPEDIA
LIST OF UMAYYAD CALIPHS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Caliphs#Umayyad_ Caliphs_.28661_.E2.80.93_6_ August_750.29



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAUMAYYAD CALIPHATE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate




[66]

LOOK AT THE CART THE VASTNESS OF THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE

WIKIPEDIAUMAYYAD CALIPHATE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate





[67]

Ṭāriq ibn Ziyād (Arabic: طارق بن زياد‎‎) was a Berber[1] Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar


WIKIPEDIATARIQ IBN ZIYAD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tariq_ibn_Ziyad





[68]

WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate


WIKIPEDIACALIPHATES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Muslim_empires_and_dyn asties#Caliphates



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIALIST OF MUSLIM EMPIRES AND DYNASTIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Muslim_empires_and_dyn asties






[69]

WIKIPEDIARASHIDUN CALIPHATE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Rashidun_Caliphate




[70]


WIKIPEDIAMUHAMMAD


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad


[71]


LOOK AT THE CART THE VASTNESS OF THE RASHIDUN CALIPHATE


WIKIPEDIARASHIDUN CALIPHATE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Rashidun_Caliphate



[72]


WIKIPEDIAUMAYYAD CALIPHATE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate




[73]


FAMILY LINE OF ABD-AL-RAHMAN I, FIRST CALIPHOF THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE IN CORDOBA, AL-ANDALUS [MUSLIM SPAIN]:


ABD-AL-RAHMAN WAS THE PATERNAL GRANDSON OFTHE UMAYYAD CALIPH HISHAM IBN ABD AL-MALIK,FROM THE GREAT UMAYYAD EMPIRE, STRETCHING FROMPERSIA TILL NORTH-AFRICA

ADB-AL-RAHMAN I WAS THE GREATGREATGRANDSON OF CALIPHMARWAN I, SINCE HIS FATHER WAS THE GREATGRANDSON OF MARWAN  I
THE LAST CALIPH FROM THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE, MARWAN II,WAS, LIKE ABD-AL-RAHMAN'S GRANDFATHER, HISHAM IBN ADB AL-MALIK, A GRANDSON OF CALIPH MARWAN I



ABD-AL-RAHMAN [LATER I] SON OF MU'AWIA IBN HISHAM AND GRANDSONOF HISHAM IBN ADB AL-MALIK
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I

ABD-AL-RAHMAN'S  FATHER, MU'AWIYA IBN HISHAM [WAS NO CALIPH, BUT AN ARABGENERAL]

WIKIPEDIAMU'AWIYA IBN HISHAM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Mu%27awiya_ibn_Hisham


ABD-AL-RAHMAN'S PATERNAL GRANDFATHER, CALIPH
HISHAM IBN ADB AL-MALIK


WIKIPEDIA 
HISHAM IBN ADB AL-MALIK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hisham_ibn_Abd_al-Malik


ABD-AL-RAHMAN'S PATERNAL GREATGRANDFATHER,CALIPH ABD-AL-MAILK IBN MARWAN

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-MAILK IBN MARWAN


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Malik_ibn_Marwan


ABD-AL-RAHMAN'S PATERNAL GREATGREATGRANDFATHER,CALIPH MARWAN I

WIKIPEDIAMARWAN I
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Marwan_I





MARWAN II, LAST CALIPH OF THE UMAYYADS,GRANDSON OF CALIPH MARWAN I

WIKIPEDIAMARWAN II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Marwan_II


WIKIPEDIALIST OF UMAYYAD CALIPHS 9661-6 AUGUST 750)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Caliphs#Umayyad_Caliph s_.28661_.E2.80.93_6_August_ 750.29


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIALIST OF CALIPHS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_Caliphs




[74]
''''During the reign of the Umayyad caliph Marwan II Harran became the seat of the caliphal government of the Islamic empire stretching from Spain to Central Asia.''

WIKIPEDIAEARLY ISLAMIC HARRAN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Harran#Early_Islamic_Harran


''Harran (Arabic: حران‎‎,Turki shHarranOttoman Turkish: حران‎,[3]) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa. The location is in a district of Şanlıurfa Province that is also named "Harran".

ORIGINAL SOURCEHARRAN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Harran


WIKIPEDIAUPPER MESOPOTAMIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Upper_Mesopotamia




[75]

LOOK AT THE CART FOR THE VASTNESS OF THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE


WIKIPEDIAUMAYYAD CALIPHATE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate



[76]

LOOK AT THE CARTTHE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE AT ITS GREATEST EXTENT

WIKIPEDIABATTLE OF TOURS/MOORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Tours#Moors


ORIGINAL SOURCEBATTLE OF TOURS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Battle_of_Tours




[77]


''The victors desecrated the tombs of the Umayyads in Syria, sparing only that of Umar II, and most of the remaining members of the Umayyad family were tracked down and killed. When Abbasids declared amnesty for members of the Umayyad family, eighty gathered to receive pardons, and all were massacred.''

WIKIPEDIAUMAYYAD CALIPHATE/ABBASID REVOLUTION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate#Abbasid_Revo lution


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
UMAYYAD CALIPHATE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate


[78]

WIKIPEDIAABBASID CALIPHATE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abbasid_Caliphate




[79]

SEE FOR THE UMAYYAD FAMILY LINE OF ABD-AL-RAHMAN I, ONLYSURVIVOR OF THE  ABBASID MASSACRE, NOTE 73




[80]

''Born near Damascus in Syria, Abd al-Rahman was the son of the Umayyad prince Mu'awiya ibn Hisham and a Berber mother, and thus the grandson of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malikcaliph from 724 to 743.[3][4] He was twenty when his family, the ruling Umayyads, were overthrown by the Abbasid Revolution in 748–750. Abd al-Rahman and a small part of his family fled Damascus, where the center of Umayyad power had been; people moving with him include his brother Yahya, his four-year-old son Sulayman, and some of his sisters, as well as his Greek freedman, Bedr.''

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FLIGHT FROM DAMASCUS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Flight_from_Da mascus


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I



[81]


''Abd al-Rahman, Yahya and Bedr quit the village narrowly escaping the Abbasid assassins. Later, on the way south, Abbasid horsemen again caught up with the trio: Abd al-Rahman and his companions then threw themselves into the River Euphrates. While trying to swim across the dangerous Euphrates, Abd al-Rahman is said to have become separated from his brother Yahya, who began swimming back towards the horsemen, possibly from fear of drowning. The horsemen begged the escapers to return, promising that no harm would come to them. The 17th-century historian Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari poignantly described Abd al-Rahman's reaction as he implored Yahya to keep going: "O brother! Come to me, come to me!"[6] Yahya returned to the near shore, and was quickly dispatched by the horsemen. They cut the head off their prize, leaving Yahya's body to rot. Al-Maqqari quotes prior Muslim historians as having recorded that Abd al-Rahman said he was so overcome with fear at that moment, that once he made the far shore he ran until exhaustion overcame him.[7] Only he and Bedr were left to face the unknown.''

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FLIGHT FROM DAMASCUS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Flight_from_ Damascus


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I



[82]

''After barely escaping with their lives, Abd al-Rahman and Bedr continued south through Palestine, the Sinai, and then into Egypt. Abd al-Rahman had to keep a low profile as he traveled. It may be assumed that he intended to go at least as far as northwestern Africa (Maghreb), the land of his mother, which had been partly conquered by his Umayyad predecessors. The journey across Egypt would prove perilous. At the time, Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri was the semi-autonomous governor of Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia) and a former Umayyad client. The ambitious Ibn Habib, a member of the illustrious Fihrid family, had long sought to carve out Ifriqiya as a private dominion for himself. At first, he sought an understanding with the Abbasids, but when they refused his terms and demanded his submission, Ibn Habib broke openly with the Abbasids and invited the remnants of the Umayyad dynasty to take refuge in his dominions. Abd al-Rahman was only one of several surviving Umayyad family members to make their way to Ifriqiya at this time.

But Ibn Habib soon changed his mind. He feared the presence of prominent Umayyad exiles in Ifriqiya, a family more illustrious than his own, might become a focal point for intrigue among local nobles against his own usurped powers. Around 755, believing he had discovered plots involving some of the more prominent Umayyad exiles in Kairouan, Ibn Habib turned against them. At the time, Abd al-Rahman and Bedr were keeping a low profile, staying in Kabylie, at the camp of a Nafza Berber chieftain friendly to their plight. Ibn Habib dispatched spies to look for the Umayyad prince. When Ibn Habib's soldiers entered the camp, the Berber chieftain's wife Tekfah hid Abd al-Rahman under her personal belongings to help him go unnoticed.[8] Once they were gone, Abd a-Rahman and Bedr immediately set off westwards.

In 755, Abd al-Rahman and Bedr reached modern-day Morocco near Ceuta.''


WIKIPEDIA

ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/EXILE YEARS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Exile_years



ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA

ABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I





[83]

'' Abbasid agents closed in on Abd al-Rahman and his family while they were hiding in a small village. He left his young son with his sisters and fled with Yahya. Accounts vary, but Bedr likely initially escaped with Abd ar-Rahman.''
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FLIGHT FROM DAMASCUS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Flight_from_Da mascus


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I






[84]


WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FIGHT FOR POWER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Fight_for_powe r


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I



[85]

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FIGHT FOR POWER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Fight_for_powe r


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I




[86]

''With this act, Abd ar-Rahman proclaimed himself the emir of al-Andalus''

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FIGHT FOR POWER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Fight_for_powe r


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I




''He was finally reacquainted with his son Sulayman, whom he last saw weeping on the banks of the Euphrates with his sisters''

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/RULE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Rule



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I




[87]


WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/RULE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Rule



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I



[88]


WIKIPEDIAABBASID-CAROLINGIAN ALLIANCE/MILITARY ALLIANCE IN SPAIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abbasid%E2%80%93Carolingian_ alliance#Military_alliance_in_ Spain_.28777-778.29


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABBASID-CAROLINGIAN ALLIANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abbasid%E2%80%93Carolingian_ alliance 



[89]


WIKIPEDIAABBASID-CAROLINGIAN ALLIANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abbasid%E2%80%93Carolingian_ alliance



[90]


WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN IBN HABIB AL-FIHRI
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_ibn_Habib_al-Fih ri



[91]

'' Ibn Habib then decided to revolt against the Abbasids and dropped the name of the Abbasid caliph from the Friday prayers.....''

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN IBN HABIB AL-FIHRI/RELATIONS WITH THE CALIPHS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_ibn_Habib_al-Fih ri#Relations_with_the_Caliphs



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN IBN HABIB AL-FIHRI
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_ibn_Habib_al-Fih ri



[92]

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN III/ASSUMPTION OF THE CALIPHATE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III#Assumption_ of_the_Caliphate



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN III

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III#Assumption_ of_the_Caliphate 



WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba




[93]






''Despite such a tremendous victory, Abd al-Rahman had to continuously put down rebellions in al-Andalus.[15] Various Arab and Berber tribes fought each other for varying degrees of power, some cities tried to break away and form their own state, and even members of Abd al-Rahman's family tried to wrest power from him. During a large revolt, dissidents marched on Córdoba itself; However, Abd al-Rahman always managed to stay one step ahead, and crushed all opposition; as he always dealt severely with dissidence in al-Andalus.[16] However, this assumption needs to be in perspective, since in 756 he was in charge of a limited number of southern strongholds and he faced resistance to submit from other towns during the next 25 years, rather than revolts.''

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/RULE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Rule




ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I


WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/PROBLEMS IN THE UPPER MARCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Problems_in_th e_Upper_March



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I




[94]

''Despite all this turmoil in al-Andalus, Abd al-Rahman wanted to take the fight back east to Baghdad. Revenge for the massacre of his family at the hands of the Abbasids must surely have been the driving factor in Abd al-Rahman's war plans. However his war against Baghdad was put on hold by more internal problems. The city of Zaragoza on the Upper March remained out of reach of the Umayyad leader since the times of Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri, bidding for autonomy. Little could Abd al-Rahman have known that as he set off to settle matters in that northern city, his hopes of warring against Baghdad would be indefinitely put on hold.''

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/RULE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Rule


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I


[95]

WIKIPEDIAROMAN NUMERALS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Roman_numerals



WIKIPEDIA
ARABIC NUMERALS/ADOPTION IN EUROPE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Arabic_numerals#Adoption_in_Eu rope

ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIAARABIC NUMERALS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Arabic_numerals



YOUTUBE.WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=1874s



[96]



YOUTUBE.WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=1874s



[97]


YOUTUBE.WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=1874s


[98]



YOUTUBE.WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=1874s



''He sponsored elaborate building programs, promoted agriculture, and even imported fruit trees and other plants from his former home. Orange trees still stand in the courtyard of the Mosque of Cordoba, a beautiful, if bittersweet reminder of the Umayyad exile.''


KHANACADEMY.ORGTHE GREAT MOSQUE OF CORDOBA

https://www.khanacademy.org/ humanities/ap-art-history/ early-europe-and-colonial- americas/ap-art-islamic-world- medieval/a/the-great-mosque- of-cordoba


[99]


KHANACADEMY.ORGTHE GREAT MOSQUE OF CORDOBA

https://www.khanacademy.org/ humanities/ap-art-history/ early-europe-and-colonial- americas/ap-art-islamic-world- medieval/a/the-great-mosque- of-cordoba





YOUTUBE.WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=1874s


MUSLIMHERITAGETHE MOSQUE OF CORDOBA


http://www.muslimheritage.com/ article/mosque-cordoba




''
After the aforementioned period of conflict, Abd al-Rahman continued in his improvement of al-Andalus' infrastructure. He ensured roadways were begun, aqueducts were constructed or improved, and that a new mosque was well funded in his capital at Córdoba. Construction on what would in time become the world-famous Great Mosque of Córdoba was started circa the year 786.''

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/MILITARY, SOCIAL AND CONSTRUCTION WORKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Military_and_s ocial.2C_and_constructions_wor ks


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I



 



[100]


''As was common during the years of Islamic expansion from Arabia, religious tolerance was practiced. Abd al-Rahman continued to allow Jews and Christians and other monotheistic religions to retain and practice their faiths. They did, however, have to pay a tribute tax for this privilege.''


WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/MILITARY, SOCIAL AND CONSTRUCTION WORKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Military_and_s ocial.2C_and_constructions_wor ks


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I


[101]




''Construction on what would in time become the world-famous Great Mosque of Córdoba was started circa the year 786. Abd al-Rahman knew that one of his sons would one day inherit the rule of al-Andalus, but that it was a land torn by strife. In order to successfully rule in such a situation, Abd al-Rahman needed to create a reliable civil service and organize a standing army. He felt that he could not always rely on the local populace in providing a loyal army; and therefore bought a massive standing army consisting mainly of Berbers from North Africa[22]''

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/MILITARY, SOCIAL AND CONSTRUCTION WORKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Military_and_ social.2C_and_constructions_ works


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I





[102]

'' Anglo-Saxon secular buildings in Britain were generally simple, constructed mainly using timber with thatch for roofing.''

WIKIPEDIAANGLO-SAXON ARCHITECTURE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Anglo-Saxon_architecture



''Unfortunately for posterity, most Saxon buildings were constructed of wood with wattle and daub walls. The depredations of the Danes left very few of these flammable buildings standing. The only buildings the Anglo-Saxons tended to build in more permanent stone were their monasteries and churches.''
BRITAINEXPRESS.COMANGLO-SAXON ARCHITECTURE

http://www.britainexpress.com/ architecture/saxon.htm




[103]


WIKIPEDIARENAISSANCE



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Renaissance




[104]

YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=5201s





[105]


YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=5201s



''Arab logicians had inherited Greek ideas after they had invaded and conquered Egypt and the Levant. Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Spain and Sicily, which became important centers for this transmission of ideas. ''


WIKIPEDIATRANSMISSION OF THE GREEK CLASSICS/ARAB TRANSLATIONSAND COMMENTARY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Transmission_of_the_Greek_Clas sics#Arab_translations_and_com mentary


WIKIPEDIATRANSMISSION OF THE GREEK CLASSICS/WESTERN EUROPEAN RECEPTION OF GREEK IDEAS VIATHE ARABIAN TRADITION
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Transmission_of_the_Greek_Clas sics#Western_European_receptio n_of_Greek_ideas_via_the_Arabi an_tradition


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIATRANSMISSION OF THE GREEK CLASSICS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Transmission_of_the_Greek_Clas sics


[106]

''In the ninth and tenth centuries, Córdoba was “one of the most important cities in the history of the world.” In it, “Christians and Jews were involved in the Royal Court and the intellectual life of the city.”[17]

Regarding Córdoba's importance, Reinhardt Dozy wrote:[18]

The fame of Córdoba penetrated even distant Germany: the Saxon nun Hroswitha, famous in the last half of the 10th century for her Latin poems and dramas, called it the Ornament of the World.

— Reinhardt Dozy

Córdoba had a prosperous economy with its “skilled artisans and agricultural infrastructure,” The manufactured goods for sale included “leather and metal work, glazed tiles and textiles.” The agricultural produce included fruits, vegetables, spices, herbs, and raw materials such as “cotton, flax and silk.”[19]

Córdoba was also famous as “a centre of learning.” Education was “taken seriously.” Al-Hakam II had a large library. Knowledge in the fields of “medicine, mathematics, astronomy, botany” exceeded the rest of Europe.[20]''



WIKIPEDIA

CORDOBA,ANDALUSIA/ISLAMIC RULE




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ C%C3%B3rdoba,_Andalusia#Islami c_rule



ORIGINAL SOURCE



WIKIPEDIA

CORDOBA,ANDALUSIA



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ C%C3%B3rdoba,_Andalusia




''On May 25, 1085, Alfonso VI of Castile took Toledo and established direct personal control over the Moorish city from which he had been exacting tribute, ending the medieval Taifa's Kingdom of Toledo. This was the first concrete step taken by the combined kingdom of Leon-Castile in the Reconquista by Christian forces. After Castilian conquest, Toledo continued to be a major cultural centre; its Arab libraries were not pillaged, and a tag-team translation centre was established in which books in Arabic or Hebrew would be translated into Castilian by Muslim and Jewish scholars, and from Castilian into Latin by Castilian scholars, thus letting long-lost knowledge spread through Christian Europe again''




WIKIPEDIA

TOLEDO,SPAIN/MEDIEVAL TOLEDO AFTER THE RECONQUEST



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo,_Spain#Medieval_Toledo_ after_the_Reconquest



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

TOLEDO,SPAIN


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo,_Spain





''Traditionally Toledo was a center of multilingual culture and had prior importance as a center of learning and translation, beginning in its era under Muslim rule. Numerous classical works of ancient philosophers and scientists that had been translated into Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age "back east" were well known in al-Andalus (Islamic-era Spain) such as those from the Neoplatonism school, Arist otleHippocratesGalenPtol emy, etc., as well as the works of ancient philosophers and scientists from Persia, India, and China;[1] these enabled Arabic-speaking populations at the time (both in the east and in "the west," or North Africa and the Iberian peninsula) to learn about many ancient classical disciplines that were generally inaccessible to the Christian parts of western Europe, and Arabic-speaking scientists in the eastern Muslim lands such as Ibn Sinaal-Kindial-Razi, and others, had added significant works to that ancient body of thought.

Some of the Arabic literature was also translated into LatinHebrew, and Ladino, such as that of Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides, Muslim sociologist-historian Ibn KhaldunCarthage citizen Cons tantine the African, or the Persian Al-Khwarizmi.[2]

Spain's multi-cultural richness beginning in the era of Umayyad dynasty rule in that land (711-1031) was one of the main reasons why European scholars were traveling to study there as early as the end of the 10th century.''




WIKIPEDIATOLEDO SCHOOL OF TRANSLATORS/BACKGROUND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo_School_of_Translators#B ackground


ORIGINAL SOURCEWIKIPEDIATOLEDO SCHOOL OF TRANSLATORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo_School_of_Translators




[107]




YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=5201s

''The University of al-Qarawiyyin, also written Al Quaraouiyine or Al-Karaouine (  Arabic: جامعة القرويين‎‎; Berber: ⵜⵉⵎⵣⴳⵉⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵍⵇⴰⵕⴰⵡⵉⵢⵢⵉⵏ; FrenchUniversit é Al Quaraouiyine), is a university located in FezMorocco. It is the oldest existing, continually operating and the first degree awarding educational institution in the world according to UNESCO and Guinness World Records[5][6] and is sometimes referred to as the oldest university.[7] The Al Quaraouiyine mosque-religious school / college was founded by Fatima al-Fihri in 859 with an associated school, or madrasa, which subsequently became one of the leading spiritual and educational centers of the historic Muslim world.''

WIKIPEDIAUNIVERSITY OF AL QUARAOUIYINE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ University_of_Al_Quaraouiyine



[108]





YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=5201s



''On May 25, 1085, Alfonso VI of Castile took Toledo and established direct personal control over the Moorish city from which he had been exacting tribute, ending the medieval Taifa's Kingdom of Toledo. This was the first concrete step taken by the combined kingdom of Leon-Castile in the Reconquista by Christian forces. After Castilian conquest, Toledo continued to be a major cultural centre; its Arab libraries were not pillaged, and a tag-team translation centre was established in which books in Arabic or Hebrew would be translated into Castilian by Muslim and Jewish scholars, and from Castilian into Latin by Castilian scholars, thus letting long-lost knowledge spread through Christian Europe again''




WIKIPEDIA

TOLEDO,SPAIN/MEDIEVAL TOLEDO AFTER THE RECONQUEST



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo,_Spain#Medieval_Toledo_ after_the_Reconquest



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

TOLEDO,SPAIN


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo,_Spain




[109]





WIKIPEDIATOLEDO SCHOOL OF TRANSLATORS/BACKGROUND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo_School_of_Translators#B ackground


ORIGINAL SOURCEWIKIPEDIATOLEDO SCHOOL OF TRANSLATORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo_School_of_Translators



YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=5201s



[110]



YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=5201s



[111]



YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=5201s






[112]



YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA


BLACKHISTORYSTUDIES.COM15 THINGS YOU DIDN'T KNOW ABOUT THE MOORS OF SPAIN

http://www. blackhistorystudies.com/ resources/resources/15-facts- on-the-moors-in-spain/


[113]

WIKIPEDIAALGEBRA/ETYMOLOGY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Algebra#Etymology



ORIGINAL SOURCEWIKIPEDIAALGEBRA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Algebra



[114]

WIKIPEDIAARABIC NUMERALS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Arabic_numerals



[115]

''late 14c., "arithmetical symbol for zero," from Old French cifre "nought, zero," Medieval Latin cifra, with Spanish and Italian cifra, ultimately from Arabic sifr "zero," literally "empty, nothing," from safara "to be empty;" loan-translation of Sanskrit sunya-s "empty." The word came to Europe with Arabic numerals.''

ONLINE ETYMOLOGY DICTIONARYCIPHER

http://www.etymonline.com/ index.php?term=cipher




[116]


YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA



[117]



YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA



[118]


WIKIPEDIAWILLIAM VIII, DUKE OF ACQUITAINE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_VIII,_Duke_of_ Aquitaine



[119]


WIKIPEDIABARBASTRO/HISTORY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Barbastro#History



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIABARBASTRO

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Barbastro




[120]

WIKIPEDIARAMIRO I OF ARAGON


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ramiro_I_of_Aragon





[121]



YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=173s


''According to historic sources, William VIII, the father of William, brought to Poitiers hundreds of Muslim prisoners.[14] Trend admitted that the troubadours derived their sense of form and even the subject matter of their poetry from the Andalusian Muslims.[15] The hypothesis that the troubadour tradition was created, more or less, by William after his experience of Moorish arts while fighting with the Reconquista in Spain was also championed by Ramón Menéndez Pidal in the early 20th-century, but its origins go back to the Cinquecento and Giammaria Barbieri (died 1575) and Juan Andrés (died 1822). Meg Bogin, English translator of the female troubadors, also held this hypothesis, as did Idries Shah. Certainly "a body of song of comparable intensity, profanity and eroticism [existed] in Arabic from the second half of the 9th century onwards."[16]''

CLASSICAL ARAB MUSIC

http://www. classicalarabicmusic.com/ traditional%20arabic%20music. htm




[122]

''William's greatest legacy to history was not as a warrior but as a troubadour — a lyric poet employing the Romance vernacular language called Provençal or Occitan.

He was the earliest troubadour whose work survives. Eleven of his songs survive (Merwin, 2002). The song traditionally numbered as the eighth (Farai chansoneta nueva) is of dubious attribution, since its style and language are significantly different (Pasero 1973, Bond 1982). Song 5 (Farai un vers, pos mi sonelh) has two significantly different versions in different manuscripts. The songs are attributed to him under his title as Count of Poitou (lo coms de Peitieus). The topics vary, treating sex, love, women, his own sexual and literary prowess, and feudal politics.''




WIKIPEDIAWILLIAM IX, DUKE OF ACQUITAINE/POETIC CAREER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_IX,_Duke_of_Aquitaine# Poetic_career



ORIGINAL SOURCE

''Though his political and military achievements have a certain historical importance, he is best known as the earliest troubadour[1] — a vernacular lyric poet in the Occitan language — whose work survived.''

WIKIPEDIAWILLIAM IX, DUKE OF ACQUITAINE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ William_IX,_Duke_of_Aquitaine 



[123]




WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN III

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III



[124]


WIKIPEDIAMEDINA AZAHARA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Medina_Azahara





[125]

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN III/ASSUMPTION OF THE CALIPHATE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III#Assumption_ of_the_Caliphate




ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN III

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd-ar-Rahman_III




[126]


''The victors desecrated the tombs of the Umayyads in Syria, sparing only that of Umar II, and most of the remaining members of the Umayyad family were tracked down and killed. When Abbasids declared amnesty for members of the Umayyad family, eighty gathered to receive pardons, and all were massacred. One grandson of Hisham, Abd al-Rahman I, survived and established a kingdom in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) , proclaiming his family to be the Umayyad Caliphate revived.''
WIKIPEDIAUMAYYAD CALIPHATE/ABBASID REVOLUTION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate#Abbasid_Revo lution



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAUMAYYAD CALIPHATE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Umayyad_Caliphate






''Born near Damascus in Syria, Abd al-Rahman was the son of the Umayyad prince Mu'awiya ibn Hisham and a Berber mother, and thus the grandson of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malikcaliph from 724 to 743.[3][4] He was twenty when his family, the ruling Umayyads, were overthrown by the Abbasid Revolution in 748–750. Abd al-Rahman and a small part of his family fled Damascus, where the center of Umayyad power had been; people moving with him include his brother Yahya, his four-year-old son Sulayman, and some of his sisters, as well as his Greek freedman, Bedr.''

WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FLIGHT FROM DAMASCUS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I#Flight_from_Da mascus



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAABD-AL-RAHMAN I

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Abd_al-Rahman_I


THE RULING OF ABD-AL-RAHMAN III [WHO PROCLAIMEDHIMSELF TO CALIPH] AND HIS DESCENDANTS WASTHE CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA




WIKIPEDIATHE CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba



[127]

YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE


https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=3100s


WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/UMAYYAD CALIPHS OF CORDOBA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba# Umayyad_Caliphs_of_C.C3. B3rdoba



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba


REMARK ASTRID ESSED:HISHAM II [MENTIONED IN UNDERLYING WIKIPEDIA COMMENTAND WHO ONLY RULED IN NAME]],UNDER WHICH THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE WAS SWIFTLY DETORIATINGWAS THE GRANDSON OF ABD-AL-RAHMAN III, WHO PROCLAIMEDHIMSELD CALIPH AND HAD A FLOURISHING REIGN

ABL-AL-HAKAM II [FIRST NAMED CALIPH IN UNDERLYING WIKIPEDIA COMMENT] WASTHE SON OF ABD-AL-RAHMAN III AND THE FATHER OF HISHAM II

''The death of al-Hakam II in 976 marked the beginning of the end of the caliphate. Before his death, al-Hakam named his 10-year-old son Hisham II (976–1008) successor. Although the child was ill-equipped to be caliph, since he had sworn an oath of obedience to him Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir (top adviser to al-Hakam, also known as Almanzor) pronounced him caliph. Ibn Abi Aamir was the boy's guardian, exercising Hisham's powers until he matured. He isolated Hisham in Córdoba while systematically eradicating opposition to his own rule,[9] allowing Berbers from Africa to migrate to al-Andalus to increase his base of support. He, his son Abd al-Malik (al-Muzaffar, after his 1008 death) and his brother (Abd al-Rahman) retained the power nominally held by Caliph Hisham. However, during a raid on the Christian north a revolt tore through Córdoba and Abd al-Rahman never returned.[10][11]

The decision to name Hisham II caliph shifted power from an individual to his advisers. The title of caliph became symbolic, without power or influence. The Caliphate would be rocked by violence, with rivals claiming to be the new caliph. The last Córdoban Caliph was Hisham III (1027–1031). Beset by factionalism, the caliphate crumbled in 1031 into a number of independent taifas.''




WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/FALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba#Fall




ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba




[128]

WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba




[129]

YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=3171s




[130]



YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=3171s




[131]

'' The Caliphate would be rocked by violence, with rivals claiming to be the new caliph. The last Córdoban Caliph was Hisham III (1027–1031). Beset by factionalism, the caliphate crumbled in 1031 into a number of independent taifas.''
WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/FALL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba#Fall



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba


[132]


''In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from Arabic: طائفة‎‎   ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the UmayyadCaliphate of Córdoba in 1031. Most of these were emirates, though there was one oligarchy.''

WIKIPEDIATAIFA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa



[133]

WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/LIST OF RULERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba# List_of_rulers


WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/UMAYYAD EMIRS OF CORDOBA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba# Umayyad_Emirs_of_C.C3.B3rdoba



WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/UMAYYAD CALIPHS OF CORDOBA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba# Umayyad_Caliphs_of_C.C3. B3rdoba



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba

[134]

''According to historians, the emirs and caliphs comprising the Umayyad dynasty in Al-Andalus were the sons of concubine slaves (almost all Iberians from the north of the peninsula).''

WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA/LIST OF RULERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba#List _of_rulers


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba

[135]

WIKIPEDIAEMIRATE OF CORDOBA [756-929]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emirate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba


''The Caliphate of Córdoba (Arabic: خلافة قرطبة‎‎; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty. The state, with the capital in Córdoba, existed from 929 to 1031. The region was formerly dominated by the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba (756–929). The period was characterized by an expansion of trade and culture, and saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture. In January 929, Abd-ar-Rahman III proclaimed himself caliph (Arabic: خليفة) of Córdoba[2] in place of his original title, Emir of Córdoba (Arabic: أمير قرطبة 'Amīr Qurṭuba). He was a member of the Umayyad dynasty, which had held the title of Emir of Córdoba since 756.''



WIKIPEDIACALIPHATE OF CORDOBA [929-1031]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Caliphate_of_C%C3%B3rdoba





[136]

''In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from Arabic: طائفة‎‎   ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the UmayyadCaliphate of Córdoba in 1031. Most of these were emirates, though there was one oligarchy.''

WIKIPEDIATAIFA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa



''One of the recurring themes of Islamic history is that disunity in the Muslim world has consistently led to weakness and the decline of one-powerful empires. One of the most clear examples of this was the taifa period of al-Andalus – Muslim Spain – in the 11th century. In the 700s, al-Andalus was established as a powerful and prosperous province under the Umayyads. After the Abbasid revolution of 750, al-Andalus became an autonomous state under the sovereignty of what remained of the Umayyad dynasty.

Al-Andalus reached its peak around the year 1000. The Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba was the most powerful state in Western Europe politically as well as economically. The artistic, academic, and social achievements of al-Andalus rivaled that of any other part of the Muslim world at that time, including the advanced civilizations in Iraq, Egypt, and Persia. However, within 50 years, all that would change. Al-Andalus would go from being one powerful united state, to one that is divided, vulnerable to invasion, and politically dependent on outsiders. This time, known as the Taifa Period, sowed the seeds for the decline of al-Andalus and its eventual fall in 1492.''





LOST ISLAMIC HISTORYDISUNITY IN AL-ANDALUS-THE TAIFA PERIOD

http://lostislamichistory.com/ disunity-in-al-andalus-the-tai fa-period/




[137]



YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=4706s




[138]




YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=4706s

''Reversing the trend of the Umayyad period, when the Christian kingdoms of the north often had to pay tribute to the Caliph, the disintegration of the Caliphate left the rival Muslim kingdoms much weaker than their Christian counterparts, particularly the Castilian–Leonese monarchy, and had to submit to them, paying tributes known as parias.''

WIKIPEDIATAIFA/DECLINE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa#Decline



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIATAIFA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa






[139]


YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA



[140]

WIKIPEDIA

RECONQUISTA



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Reconquista





[141]



WIKIPEDIA

TOLEDO,SPAIN/MEDIEVAL TOLEDO

AFTER THE RECONQUEST



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo,_Spain#Medieval_Toledo_ after_the_Reconquest



ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA

TOLEDO,SPAIN



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Toledo,_Spain




[142]




''In the High Middle Ages, the fight against the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula became linked to the fight of the whole of Christendom. The Reconquista was originally a mere war of conquest. It only later underwent a significant shift in meaning toward a religiously justified war of liberation (see the Augustinian concept of a Just War). The papacy and the influential Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy not only justified the acts of war but actively encouraged Christian knights to seek armed confrontation with Moorish "infidels" instead of with each other.

From the 11th century onwards indulgences were granted: In 1064 Pope Alexander II promised the participants of an expedition against Barbastro (Tagr al-Andalus, Aragon) a collective indulgence 30 years before Pope Urban II called the First Crusade. Papal interest in Christian-Muslim relations in the peninsula are not without precedent — Popes Leo IV (847–855), John VIII (872–882) and John XIX (1024–33) are all known to have displayed substantial interest in the region. Not until 1095 and the Council of Clermont did the Reconquista amalgamate the conflicting concepts of a peaceful pilgrimage and armed knight-errantry. But the papacy left no doubt about the heavenly reward for knights fighting for Christ (militia Christi): in a letter, Urban II tried to persuade the reconquistadores fighting at Tarragona to stay in the Peninsula rather than joining the armed pilgrimage to conquer Jerusalem, saying that their contribution for Christianity was equally important. The pope promised them the same indulgences that he had promised to those who chose to join the First Crusade.''



WIKIPEDIA

RECONQUISTA/EXPANSION INTO THE CRUSADES AND

MILITARY ORDERS



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Reconquista#Expansion_into_the _Crusades_and_military_orders



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

RECONQUISTA



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Reconquista






ALMORAVIDS



''Due to their military weakness, taifa princes appealed for North African warriors to come fight Christian kings on two occasions. The Almoravids were invited after the fall of Toledo (1085), and the Almohads after the fall of Lisbon (1147). These warriors did not in fact help the taifa emirs but rather annexed their lands to their own North African empires.''



WIKIPEDIA

TAIFA/DECLINE



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa#Decline




ORIGINAL SOURCE


WIKIPEDIA

TAIFA


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa





YOUTUBE.COM

WHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE



https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=4706s





[143]





YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA


''In 1086 Yusuf ibn Tashfin was invited by the Muslim taifa princes of Al-Andalus in the Iberian Peninsula to defend their territories from the encroachment of Alfonso VI, King of León and Castile. In that year, Yusuf ibn Tashfin crossed the Strait of Gibraltar to Algeciras, and defeated Castile at the Battle of az-Zallaqah (Battle of Sagrajas)''

WIKIPEDIAALMORAVID DYNASTY/SOUTHERN IBERIA AND THE NORTHERNWING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Almoravid_dynasty#Southern_ Iberia_and_the_Northern_Wing


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAALMORAVID DYNASTY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Almoravid_dynasty



[144]



YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA



[145]

LIST OF THE MAIN MOORISH KINGDOMS FROM 756 UNTILL1492, THE END OF THE MOORISH RULE IN AL-ANDALUS


WIKIPEDIATIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA/THE UMAYYAD EMIRATE FROM 756 UNTILL 929
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#The _Umayyad_Emirate_of_C.C3.B3rdo ba_.28756.E2.80.93929.29


WIKIPEDIATIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA/THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE FROM 929 UNTILL 1031

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#The _Umayyad_Caliphate_.28929.E2.8 0.931031.29


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIATIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula



AFTER THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMAYYAD DYNASTY IN1031, A FRAGMENTATION IN LITTLE KINGDOMS OR CITY STATESTHE ONLY STRONG KINGDOM, STILL EXISTING, IS THEEMIRATE OF GRANADA, FROM 1238, UNTILL IT IS CONQUERED IN 1492 BYTHE REYES CATOLICOS, FERDINAND AND ISABELLA



WIKIPEDIA
TIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA/POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula#Pol itical_fragmentation_.281031.E 2.80.931130.29

WIKIPEDIATIMELINE OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Timeline_of_the_Muslim_presenc e_in_the_Iberian_Peninsula



POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION, THE TAIFA KINGDOMS



''In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from Arabic: طائفة‎‎     ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, usually an emirate, though there was one oligarchy, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.''
WIKIPEDIATAIFA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa


WIKIPEDIALIST OF TAIFAS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Taifa#List_of_taifas


FURTHER POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION

WIKIPEDIAALMORAVID DYNASTY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Almoravid_dynasty


WIKIPEDIAALMOHAD CALIPHATE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Almohad_Caliphate 

WIKIPEDIAMARINID DYNASTY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Marinid_dynasty

THE ONLY LASTING AND RELATIVELY STRONG KINGDOMWAS THE KINGDOM OF GRANADA, FROM 1248 UNTILL1492, WHEN IT WAS BESIEGED AND DEFEATED BYFERDINAND AND ISABELLA [ARAGON/CASTILE],ENDING THE MOORISH RULE IN AL-ANDALUS

WIKIPEDIA
EMIRATE OF GRANADA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emirate_of_Granada 



LIST OF THE MAIN CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS IN  AL-ANDALUS

WIKIPEDIAKINGDOM OF ASTURIAS


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Asturias


WIKIPEDIAKINGDOM OF NAVARRE [PAMPLONA]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Navarre



WIKIPEDIAKINGDOM OF GALICIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Galicia


WIKIPEDIAKINGDOM OF LEON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Le%C3%B3n


WIKIPEDIAKINGDOM OF CASTILE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Castile


WIKIPEDIAKINGDOM OF ARAGON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kingdom_of_Aragon




''With the fall of Córdoba in 1236, most of the south quickly fell under Christian rule and the Emirate of Granada became a tributary state of the Kingdom of Castile two years later.''

WIKIPEDIAAL-ANDALUS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Andalus



YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=4706s





[146]



YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA



''During the Spanish Reconquista, Córdoba was captured by King Ferdinand III of Castile on 29 June 1236, after a siege of several months.''

WIKIPEDIACORDOBA,ANDALUSIA/MODERN HISTORY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ C%C3%B3rdoba,_Andalusia#Modern _history



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIACORDOBA, ANDALUSIA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ C%C3%B3rdoba,_Andalusia



''In 1238,[46] King James I of Aragon, with an army composed of AragoneseCatalans, Navarrese and crusaders from the Order of Calatrava, laid siege to Valencia and on 28 September obtained a surrender.[47]Fifty thousand Moors were forced to leave.

WIKIPEDIAVALENCIA/CHRISTIAN RECONQUEST

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Valencia#Christian_reconquest



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAVALENCIA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Valencia



''In 1247, the Christian King Ferdinand III of Castile and Leon began the conquest of Andalusia. After conquering Jaén and Córdoba, he seized the villages surrounding the city, Carmona Lora del Rio and Alcalá del Rio, and kept a standing army in the vicinity, the siege lasting for fifteen months. The decisive action took place in May 1248 when Ramon Bonifaz sailed up the Guadalquivir and severed the Triana bridge that made the provisioning of the city from the farms of the Aljarafe possible. The city surrendered on 23 November 1248.[10]''
WIKIPEDIA
SEVILLE/CASTILIAN RULE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Seville#Castilian_rule


ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIASEVILLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Seville

[147]



WIKIPEDIAEMIRATE OF GRANADA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emirate_of_Granada


[148]



''With the fall of Córdoba in 1236, most of the south quickly fell under Christian rule and the Emirate of Granada became a tributary state of the Kingdom of Castile two years later.''

WIKIPEDIAAL-ANDALUS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Al-Andalus



YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA&t=4706s




[149]

WIKIPEDIAGRANADA/RECONQUISTA BY THE CHRISTIAN SPANISHAGAINST MUSLIMS AND THE 16TH CENTURY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada#Reconquista_by_the_ Christian_Spanish_against_ Muslims_and_the_16th_century



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAGRANADA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada


WIKIPEDIAFERDINAND II OF ARAGON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ferdinand_II_of_Aragon



WIKIPEDIAISABELLA I OF CASTILE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_I_of_Castile



''The title of "Catholic King and Queen" was bestowed on Ferdinand and Isabella by Pope Alexander VI in 1494,[2] in recognition of their defence of the Catholic faith within their realms.''

WIKIPEDIACATHOLIC MONARCHS [LOS REYES CATOLICOS]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Catholic_Monarchs



''Abu `Abdallah Muhammad XII (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد الثاني عشر‎‎ Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad al-thānī ‘ashar) (c. 1460 – c. 1533), known to the Castilians as Boabdil (a Spanish rendering of the name Abu Abdullah), was the twenty-second and last Nasrid ruler of Granada in Iberia.''

WIKIPEDIAMUHAMMAD XII OF GRANADA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Muhammad_XII_of_Granada





[150]

YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA



WIKIPEDIAEXPULSION OF THE MORISCOS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Expulsion_of_the_Moriscos




''Increasing oppression of the Moors—now known as Moriscos or "New Christians"—led to the Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1568–71). After the defeat of the Moors, which was not easy, almost all the Moriscos of the former Kingdom of Granada were exiled to other parts of Spain.''

WIKIPEDIAGRANADA WAR/CONSEQUENCES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada_War#Consequences



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAGRANADA WAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada_War



''Responding to the rebellion of 1501, the Castilian Crown rescinded the Alhambra Decree treaty, and mandated that Granada's Muslims must convert or emigrate. Under the 1492 Alhambra Decree, Spain's Jewish population, unlike the Muslims, had already been forced to convert under threat of expulsion or even execution, becoming Marranos (meaning "pigs" in Spanish), or Catholics of Jewish descent. Many of the elite Muslim class subsequently emigrated to North Africa.''

WIKIPEDIAGRANADA/RECONQUISTA BY THE CHRISTIAN SPANISH AGAINSTMUSLIMS AND THE 16TH CENTURY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada#Reconquista_by_the_ Christian_Spanish_against_ Muslims_and_the_16th_century



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAGRANADA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada




[151]


Under the 1492 Alhambra Decree, Spain's Jewish population, unlike the Muslims, had already been forced to convert under threat of expulsion or even execution, becoming Marranos (meaning "pigs" in Spanish), or Catholics of Jewish descent. Many of the elite Muslim class subsequently emigrated to North Africa.''

WIKIPEDIAGRANADA/RECONQUISTA BY THE CHRISTIAN SPANISH AGAINSTMUSLIMS AND THE 16TH CENTURY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada#Reconquista_by_the_ Christian_Spanish_against_ Muslims_and_the_16th_century



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIAGRANADA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Granada




[152]



''Modern population genetics generally assume Moriscos to have had both significant Iberian and North African ancestry, even if, after centuries of presence and intermarriage in the Iberian peninsula they were unlikely to differ significantly in ethnic terms from the wider Spanish population.''

WIKIPEDIAEXPULSION OF MORISCOS AND POPULATION GENETICS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Expulsion_of_the_Moriscos#Expu lsion_of_Moriscos_and_populati on_genetics



ORIGINAL SOURCE

WIKIPEDIAEXPULSION OF THE MORISCOS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Expulsion_of_the_Moriscos



YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA




[153]




YOUTUBE.COMWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=yA6dm7CCSDA



WIKIPEDIATRANSMISSION OF THE GREEK CLASSICS/WESTERN EUROPEANRECEPTION OF GREEK IDEAS VIA THE ARABIAN TRADITION


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Transmission_of_the_Greek_ Classics#Western_European_ reception_of_Greek_ideas_via_ the_Arabian_tradition



ORIGINAL SOURCE
WIKIPEDIATRANSMISSION OF THE GREEK CLASSICS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Transmission_of_the_Greek_ Classics



WIKIPEDIARENASSANCE


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Renaissance




[154]

WEBSITE ASTRID ESSEDWARS OF THE ROSES

https://www.astridessed.nl/?s= Wars+of+the+Roses


THE WARS OF THE ROSES/RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK/THE CLAIMS TO THE THRONE OF LANCASTER AND YORKASTRID ESSED22 JANUARY 2015

https://www.astridessed.nl/ the-wars-of-the-rosesrichard- duke-of-yorkthe-claims-to-the- throne-of-lancaster-and-york/



THE WARS OF THE ROSES/CAUSES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES/TRAVELTO THE PASTASTRID ESSED3 FEBRUARY 2015

https://www.astridessed.nl/ the-wars-of-the-rosescauses- of-the-wars-of-the-rosesa- travel-to-the-past/

THE WARS OF THE ROSES/LANCASTER AND YORK/USURPATIONAND THE RIGHT TO THE THRONE THROUGH FEMALESASTRID ESSED17 FEBRUARY 2015
https://www.astridessed.nl/ the-wars-of-the- roseslancaster-and- yorkusurpation-and-the-right- to-the-throne-through-females- 2/


THE WARS OF THE ROSES/THE PRINCES OF THE TOWER/SUSAN HIGGINBOTHAM/HISTORY REFRESHED/''IF MARGARET, WHY NOT CECILY''/SOME COMMENTSASTRID ESSED24 FEBRUARY 2015

https://www.astridessed.nl/ the-wars-of-the-rosesthe- princes-in-the-towersusan- higginbothamhistory- refreshedif-margaret-why-not- cecilysome-comments/


[155]

WIKIPEDIAISABELLA OF FRANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Isabella_of_France